| GLOSSARY OF INFECTIONS AND DISEASES
STUDIES SHOW CAUSED BY
BACTERIA, VIRUSES, HELMINTHS, PROTOZOA, FUNGUS
The Same Pathogens Found in Sludge, biosolids and Reclaimed sewage effluent water
This glossary does not include the separate lists of symptoms and diseases caused by inorganic and
organic - pollutants, or synthetic organic chemicals in sludge biological solids.
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Abortion -- is the premature exit of the fetus, fetal membranes, and placenta) from the uterus.
Pregnancy may end spontaneously before the fetus can survive.
Abscesses -- localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue
Acne -- is a common skin disease that causes pimples
Acute -- sharpness or severity, acute pain, an acute infection, a sudden onset, sharp
rise, and short course, an acute disease, an acute inflammation
Antibiotic-resistant -- multidrug-resistant -- resistant to more than one drug
Aplastic -- aplastic anemia -- anemia that is characterized by defective function of the blood-forming
organs (as the bone marrow) and is caused by toxic agents (as chemicals or X-rays) or
is spontaneously from obscure or unknown cause in origin --
Appendicitis -- inflammation of the vermiform appendix
arterial infections -- relating to an artery
Arthritis --inflammation of joints due to infectious, metabolic, or constitutional causes.
Arthritis - reactive -- acute arthritis that sometimes develops following a bacterial infection (as with the
bacteria of the genera Shigella, Salmonella, or Chlamydia)
arthritis - rheumatoid -- usually chronic disease considered an autoimmune disease and is
characterized especially by pain, stiffness, inflammation, swelling, and sometimes
destruction of joints
arthritis - septic -- relating to, involving, caused by, or affected with sepsis -- a serious usually localized
infection (as of the abdomen or lungs) especially of bacterial origin that is usually marked
by abnormal body temperature and white blood cell count,-- relatively rapid heart action
whether physiological (as after exercise) or pathological and increased rate of
arthritis - seronegative -- having or being a negative serum reaction especially in a test for the presence
of a large number of proteins of high molecular weight that are produced normally by
specialized B cells after stimulation by an antigen (any substance (as an immunogen or a
hapten) foreign to the body that evokes an immune and act specifically against the
antigen in an immune response,
aspergilloma -- allergic fungal sinusitis, or a chronic, slowly invasive granulomatous inflammation with
fever, rhinitis, and headache. Necrosing cutaneous lesions may overlie the nose or
sinuses, palatal or gingival ulcerations may be present, signs of cavernous sinus
thrombosis may develop, and pulmonary or disseminated lesions may occur.
Aspergillosis -- is an opportunistic infection caused by inhaled spores of the mold Aspergillus,
which invade blood vessels, causing hemorrhagic necrosis and infarction.
Extrapulmonary invasive aspergillosis begins with skin lesions, sinusitis, or pneumonia;
may involve the liver, kidneys, brain, and other tissues; and is often rapidly fatal.
Bacteraemia -- usually transient presence of bacteria in the blood
black plague -- virulent contagious febrile disease that is caused by a bacterium of the genus Yersinia
(Y. pestis synonym Pasteurella pestis), that occurs in bubonic, pneumonic, and
blepharitis -- inflammation of the eyelids and especially of their margins
Boils -- referred to as a skin abscess -- localized infection deep in the skin.
Bronchiolitis -- inflammation of the minute thin-walled branch of a either of the two primary divisions of the
tubes that lead respectively into the right and the left lung
Bronchiseptica -- B. bronchiseptica rarely infects healthy humans though disease in
immunocompromised patients has been reported
Cancer is diagnosed in more than 1 million people every year in the US alone
Cancer is caused by chemicals and disease causing bacteria, viruses, etc.
Carcinogen -- In 1989 EPA listed 21 known chemical carcinogens in sludge biosolids. Since
then, EPA has removed most information on carcinogens off its website.
Carcinogenesis -- the production of cancer
Carditis -- inflammation of the heart muscle
Central nervous system -- (CNS) the part of the nervous system which in vertebrates consists of the brain
and spinal cord, to which sensory impulses are transmitted and from which motor
impulses pass out, and which supervises and coordinates the activity of the entire
Central venous -- access is the placement of a venous catheter in a vein that leads directly to the heart.
Cephalhematoma -- usually benign swelling formed from a hemorrhage beneath the membrane of
connective tissue that closely invests all bones except at the joint surfaces of the
skull and occurring especially over one or both of the wall cavity bones in newborn infants
chancroid -- venereal disease caused by a hemophilic bacterium of the genus Haemophilus (H. ducreyi)
and characterized by sores that differ from those of syphilis in lacking firm or hard
fibrous element margins
Chicken pox -- acute contagious disease marked by low-grade fever and formation of vesicles caused by
Cholangitis -- inflammation of one or more bile duc
cholecystitis -- inflammation of the gallbladder
chorioamnionitis -- inflammation of the fetal membranes
Chronic -- frequent recurrence over a long time, and often by slowly progressing seriousness --
especially of degenerative invasive diseases, some infections, psychoses, and
inflammations such as chronic heart disease, chronic arthritis, chronic tuberculosis.
Chronic gastritis -- inflammation especially of the mucous membrane of the stomach
Coliform -- of, relating to, or being gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria (as E. coli) normally present in the
intestine -- ESCHERICHIA COLI, SHIGELLA, EDWARDSIELLA, SALMONELLA,
CITROBACTER, KLEBSIELLA, ENTEROBACTER, SERRATIA, PROTEUS,
MORGANELLA, PROVIDENCIA and YERSINIA that ferment lactose at 35°C (95°F). A
temperature of 44.5°C (112.1° F) for thermotolerant Escherichia coli inhibit the growth of
all the coliforms of nonfecal origin as well as a large number of fecal coliforms.
However, A recent study, July 2007, found thermotolerant 04 (Uropathogenic E. coli, UPEC), 025
(Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC), 086 (Enteropathogenic E. coli, EPEC), 0103 (Shiga-toxin
producing E. coli, STEC), 0157 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 08 (Enterotoxigenic
E. coli, ETEC) and 0113 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC) in drinking water systems
Colitis -- inflammation of the colon
Coma -- a state of profound unconsciousness caused by disease, injury, or poison
Conjunctiva -- mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and is continued over the
forepart of the eyeball
Conjunctivitis -- inflammation of the conjunctiva
Corneal ulcer-- disintegration and necrosis membranous cellular tissuet -- ransparent part of the coat of
the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light to the interior
Cutaneous abscesses -- localized infection deep -- relating to, or affecting the skin
Cystitis -- inflammation of the urinary bladder
Dental abscesses -- localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue
Diarrhea -- abnormally frequent intestinal evacuations with more or less fluid stools
Digestive tract -- bodily system concerned with the ingestion, digestion, and absorption of food
Diphtheria -- an acute febrile contagious disease typically marked by the formation of a false membrane
especially in the throat and caused by a bacterium of the genus Corynebacterium (C.
diphtheriae) which produces a toxin causing inflammation of the heart and nervous system
Disseminated disease -- widely dispersed in a tissue, organ, or the entire body
diverticulitis -- inflammation or infection of a abnormal pouch or sac opening from a hollow organ, the
colon that is marked by abdominal pain or tenderness often accompanied by fever, chills,
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