(iv) Food crops, feed crops, and fiber crops shall not be harvested for 30 days after application of
sewage sludge.

(l) Food crops are crops consumed by humans. These include, but are not limited to, fruits, vegetables,
and tobacco (503.9)

(vi) Turf grown on land where sewage sludge is applied shall not be harvested for one year after
application of the sewage sludge when the harvested turf is placed on either land with a high potential
for public exposure or a lawn, unless otherwise specified by the permitting authority
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR)
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There is no Standard for Biosolids

Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 503—STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE
Subpart D—Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction

[A coliform may include 16 or more very deadly pathogens]

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§ 503.32  
 Pathogens.
(a) Sewage sludge—Class A. (1) The requirement in §503.32(a)(2) and the requirements in either
§503.32(a)(3), (a)(4), (a)(5), (a)(6), (a)(7), or (a)(8) shall be met for a sewage sludge to be classified
Class A with respect to pathogens.

(2) The Class A pathogen requirements in §503.32 (a)(3) through (a)(8) shall be met either prior to
meeting or at the same time the vector attraction reduction requirements in §503.33, except the vector
attraction reduction requirements in §503.33 (b)(6) through (b)(8), are met.

(3) Class A—Alternative 1. (i) Either the density of
fecal coliform in the sewage sludge shall be less
than 1000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of
Salmonella sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four
grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time
the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the
land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the
requirements in §503.10 (b), (c), (e), or (f).

(ii) The temperature of the sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be maintained at a specific
value for a period of time.

(A) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is seven percent or higher, the temperature of the
sewage sludge shall be 50 degrees Celsius or higher; the time period shall be 20 minutes or longer;
and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (2), except when small
particles of sewage sludge are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid.



Where,

D=time in days.

t=temperature in degrees Celsius.


(B) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is seven percent or higher and small particles of
sewage sludge are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid, the temperature of the
sewage sludge shall be 50 degrees Celsius or higher; the time period shall be 15 seconds or longer;
and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (2).

(C) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is less than seven percent and the time period is at
least 15 seconds, but less than 30 minutes, the temperature and time period shall be determined using
equation (2).

(D) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is less than seven percent; the temperature of the
sewage sludge is 50 degrees Celsius or higher; and the time period is 30 minutes or longer, the
temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (3).



Where,

D=time in days.

t=temperature in degrees Celsius.


(4) Class A—Alternative 2. (i) Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge shall be less
than 1000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of
Salmonella sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four
grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time
the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the
land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the
requirements in §503.10 (b), (c), (e), or (f).

(ii)(A)
The pH of the sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be raised to above 12 and shall
remain above 12 for 72 hours.

(B) The temperature of the sewage sludge shall be above 52 degrees Celsius for 12 hours or longer
during the period that the pH of the sewage sludge is above 12.

(C) At the end of the 72 hour period during which the pH of the sewage sludge is above 12, the sewage
sludge shall be air dried to achieve a percent solids in the sewage sludge greater than 50 percent.

(5) Class A—Alternative 3. (i) Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge shall be less
than 1000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of
Salmonella sp. bacteria in sewage sludge shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four
grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time
the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the
land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the
requirements in §503.10 (b), (c), (e), or (f).

(ii)(A) The sewage sludge shall be analyzed prior to pathogen treatment to determine whether the
sewage sludge contains enteric viruses.

(B) When the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is less than
one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A
with respect to enteric viruses until the next monitoring episode for the sewage sludge.

(C) When the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is equal to or
greater than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage
sludge is Class A with respect to enteric viruses when the density of enteric viruses in the sewage
sludge after pathogen treatment is less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry
weight basis) and when the values or ranges of values for the operating parameters for the pathogen
treatment process that produces the sewage sludge that meets the enteric virus density requirement
are documented.

(D) After the enteric virus reduction in paragraph (a)(5)(ii)(C) of this section is demonstrated for the
pathogen treatment process, the sewage sludge continues to be Class A with respect to enteric viruses
when the values for the pathogen treatment process operating parameters are consistent with the
values or ranges of values documented in paragraph (a)(5)(ii)(C) of this section.

(iii)(A) The sewage sludge shall be analyzed prior to pathogen treatment to determine whether the
sewage sludge contains viable helminth ova.

(B) When the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is less
than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to
viable helminth ova until the next monitoring episode for the sewage sludge.

(C) When the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is equal
to or greater than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A
with respect to viable helminth ova when the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge after
pathogen treatment is less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) and when the
values or ranges of values for the operating parameters for the pathogen treatment process that
produces the sewage sludge that meets the viable helminth ova density requirement are documented.

(D) After the viable helminth ova reduction in paragraph (a)(5)(iii)(C) of this section is demonstrated for
the pathogen treatment process, the sewage sludge continues to be Class A with respect to viable
helminth ova when the values for the pathogen treatment process operating parameters are consistent
with the values or ranges of values documented in paragraph (a)(5)(iii)(C) of this section.

(6) Class A—Alternative 4. (i) Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge shall be less
than 1000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of
Salmonella sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four
grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time
the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the
land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the
requirements in §503.10 (b), (c), (e), or (f).

(ii) The density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge shall be less than one Plaque-forming Unit per
four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the
time the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to
the land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet
the requirements in §503.10 (b), (c), (e), or (f), unless otherwise specified by the permitting authority.

(iii) The density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge shall be less than one per four grams of
total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time the
sewage sludge is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land;
or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the
requirements in §503.10 (b), (c), (e), or (f), unless otherwise specified by the permitting authority.

(7) Class A—Alternative 5. (i) Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge shall be less
than 1000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of
Salmonella, sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four
grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time
the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or given away in a bag or other container for application to the
land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the
requirements in §503.10(b), (c), (e), or (f).

(ii) Sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be treated in one of the Processes to Further Reduce
Pathogens described in appendix B of this part.

(8) Class A—Alternative 6. (i) Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge shall be less
than 1000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of
Salmonella, sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four
grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time
the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or given away in a bag or other container for application to the
land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the
requirements in §503.10(b), (c), (e), or (f).

(ii) Sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be treated in a process that is equivalent to a Process
to Further Reduce Pathogens, as determined by the permitting authority.

(b) Sewage sludge—Class B. (1)(i) The requirements in either §503.32(b)(2), (b)(3), or (b)(4) shall be
met for a sewage sludge to be classified Class B with respect to pathogens.

(ii) The site restrictions in §
503.32(b)(5) shall be met when sewage sludge that meets the Class B
pathogen requirements in §503.32(b)(2), (b)(3), or (b)(4) is applied to the land.

(2) Class B—Alternative 1. (i) Seven representative samples of the sewage sludge that is used or
disposed shall be collected.

(ii) The geometric mean of the density of
fecal coliform in the samples collected in paragraph (b)(2)(i)
of this section shall be less than either 2,000,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry
weight basis) or 2,000,000 Colony Forming Units per gram of total solids (dry weight basis).

(3) Class B—Alternative 2. Sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be treated in one of the
Processes to Significantly Reduce Pathogens described in appendix B of this part.

(4) Class B—Alternative 3. Sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be treated in a process that is
equivalent to a Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens, as determined by the permitting authority.

(5) Site restrictions. (i) Food crops with harvested parts that touch the sewage sludge/soil mixture and
are totally above the land surface shall not be harvested for 14 months after application of sewage
sludge.

(ii) Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land shall not be harvested for 20 months
after application of sewage sludge when the sewage sludge remains on the land surface for four
months or longer prior to incorporation into the soil.

(iii) Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land shall not be harvested for 38 months
after application of sewage sludge when the sewage sludge remains on the land surface for less than
four months prior to incorporation into the soil.

(iv) Food crops, feed crops, and fiber crops shall not be harvested for 30 days after application of
sewage sludge.

(v) Animals shall not be grazed on the land for 30 days after application of sewage sludge.

(vi) Turf grown on land where sewage sludge is applied shall not be harvested for one year after
application of the sewage sludge when the harvested turf is placed on either land with a high potential
for public exposure or a lawn, unless otherwise specified by the permitting authority.

(vii) Public access to land with a high potential for public exposure shall be restricted for one year after
application of sewage sludge.

(viii) Public access to land with a low potential for public exposure shall be restricted for 30 days after
application of sewage sludge.

(c) Domestic septage. (1) The site restrictions in §503.32(b)(5) shall be met when domestic septage is
applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site; or

(2) The pH of domestic septage applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site shall be raised
to 12 or higher by alkali addition and, without the addition of more alkali, shall remain at 12 or higher
for 30 minutes and the site restrictions in §503.32 (b)(5)(i) through (b)(5)(iv) shall be met.

[58 FR 9387, Feb. 19, 1993, as amended at 64 FR 42571, Aug. 4, 1999]


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Last updated: July 27, 2005