Deadly Deceit   
                                       CHAPTER 10

                  Suffer The Little Children
Gail Bynum, Ph.D

Since the flawed Ohio study in 1985, there has never

been another EPA documented epidemiological study on the

health effects of residents exposed to sewage sludge.

However, there have been many instances of damage to human

health which EPA refused to even acknowledge or to conduct an

epidemiological study as was the case with the residents of

Almaden, Islip, South Bronx, Franklin, Lynden, etc.

If the EPA/WEF Biosolids 2000 campaign for farmer and

public acceptance of the land application of sewage sludge by

the year 2000 suceeds, there will be many many more instances

of people being harmed from exposure to land application of

sewage sludge or the composting and pelletizing of sewage

sludge all over the United States and the world. You or your

family could be one of those whose health is affected if you

had the misfortune to be exposed to the pollutants in sewage

sludge.  Although we are all potential victims of the land

application of sewage sludge, it is the children who will

suffer the most from exposure to the pollutants in it as

happened in the South Bronx.

On October 3, 1997, EPA published in the Federal

Register, Vol.  62, No.  192 its "Review and Evaluation of

EPA Standards Regarding Children's Health Protection from

Environmental Risks" in which it stated its "commitment to

protect children from environmental health risks". In the

report the EPA explained why children are more vulnerable

than adults to the effects from exposure to pollutants.

According to the report:

Children's exposures to lead, pesticides, PCBs, and

toxic air pollutants are widespread. Compared to adults,

children are particularly vulnerable and at increased

risk from many environmental threats in four ways: (1)

Children's organ systems are still developing--including

rapid changes in growth and development, immature body

organs and tissues, and weaker immune systems--which

makes them more susceptible to environmental hazards;

(2) pound-for-pound, children breathe more air, drink

more water and eat more food than adults; 3) children's

exposures to toxins are farther enhanced by their normal

hand-to-mouth activity; and (4) children have more

future years of life than adults and are more

susceptible to chronic, multi-stage diseases such as

cancer or neurodegenerative disease that may be

triggered by early exposures. Environmental health

hazards that threaten children range from air pollution

that triggers asthma attacks and lead-based paint in

older housing, to treatment resistant microbes in

drinking water and persistent industrial chemicals that

may cause cancer to induce reproductive or developmental


The purpose of the review and evaluation was to fulfill

the mandate in President Clinton's Executive order 13045,

Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and

Safety Risks, which directed each federal agency "to set as

high priority the identification and assessment of

environmental health risks and safety risks that may

disproportionately affect children". The agency also has to

"ensure that its policies, programs, activities, and

standards address disproportionate risks to children that

result from environmental health risks or safety risks." (p.


To fulfill this requirement, EPA will select five

existing health and environmental protection standards for

review and reevaluation to determine if they sufficiently

protect children's health. It does not intend to "review

recently promulgated standards as part of this effort." The

Part 503 Sludge Rule is not one of the five.

Although EPA claims it is committed to ensure that

children receive the protection they need and deserve, and

help fulfill our nation's obligation--to protect future

generations, it is openly promoting the practice of land

disposal of sewage sludge that has already harmed some

children and will ensure that more children will suffer

adverse health effects from their exposure to the dangerous

constituents (pathogens, toxic heavy metals, and organic

chemicals) in the sludge.

According to Ms. X, the teacher from the South Bronx,

they were anything but protective of the children there. She

related to me the unconsciousnable behavior of the EPA who

was sent to investigate the situation there.  She said that

it was obvious from the beginning that EPA wasn't there out

of genuine concern for the health of the children, but to

point the finger of blame away from the pelletizing plant,

who just happened to be one of the stakeholders in EPA/WEF

biosolids promotion plan.

Using the "blame the victim tactic" they said the cause

of all the adverse health effects the children were suffering

was from rat feces and cockroach feces found in their own

homes. Ms. X said what they did next was despicable. They had

devised a questionnaire that the children were given at

school to take home for their parents to fill out. In this

questionnaire the parents were asked if there dwellings were

rat-infested and cockroach-infested.  She said this is a poor

section--there probably isn't a dwelling in the whole area

that isn't rat-infested or cochroach-infested.

To entice the children to make sure their parents would

fill out the questionnaire, with the rat and cockroach

infestation questions, that would substantiate their findings

that the cause was rat feces and cockroach feces, they were

to receive a free t-shirt.  Whatsmore any teacher who had a

100 percent return rate received $100. This agency in their

role as a promoter of biosolids (sludge) would go to any

lengths--even bribing little children--to protect one of

their polluting partners.

There is one thing wrong with EPA's findings. They have

ignored the faculty who also exhibit some of the same

symptoms as the children. According to the New York Post

article of February 13, 1996, the Jewish teachers in the

school, who live in the suburbs, are suffering from asthma

and respiratory problems too.  Evidently EPA purposefully

ignored the report of the tests run at PS 48 in the South

Bronx prepared for the American Journal syndicated TV show

aired on February 28, 1996 which documented air pollution in

the school. The preliminary screening report on the indoor

air quality of the school was prepared by Environmental

Medicine and Engineering of Phoenix, Arizona.  When EME

examined the elements in the dust samples there, they found

the particulate (average inside air in particles per cubic

foot of air) was very high:

Particulate size 0.5 micron level was 187,880.  The

recommended level was 30,000--6.26 times higher than

recommended level!

Particulate size 5.0 micron level was 8,366. The

recommended level was 1200--6.9 times higher than

recommended level!

Eleven heavy metals in the dust samples exceeded the

recommended values. Lead (Pb) was 30.5 times higher than

recommended, Cadmium (Cd) was 24 times higher, Nickel (Ni)

was 9.2 times higher, Cobalt (Co) was 1.7 times higher, Zinc

(Zn) was 1150 times higher, Arsenic (Ar) was 2.5 times

higher, Iron (FE) was 4.1 times higher, Selenium was 4.3

times higher, Beryllium (Br) was 4.6 times higher, Barium

(Ba) was 43.3 times higher, and Copper (Cu) was 8.8 times


When the symptoms that these various metals are capable of

causing, which were referenced in Heavy Metals and Potential

Health Effects from U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of June

1990, were compared with the actual symptoms exhibited by the

children at PS 48 there was a definite correlation between

the two.

Respiratory symptoms

Cadmium causes pulmonary edema {an abnormal accumulation of

fluid in the lungs, resulting in swelling} and dyspnea

{shortness of breath}.

Barium causes upper respiratory irritation.

Cobalt decreases pulmonary function.

Beryllium affects the respiratory system.

Titanium Dust causes a slight lung fibrosis.


Arsenic causes ulceration of nasal septum.

Copper causes irritation of the nasal mucus membrane.

Selenium and Zinc cause irritation of the nose.

Burning Eyes

Selenium causes irritation of the eyes as does Vanadium dust

and Conjunctivitis (inflammation of the membrane of the



Cobalt causes coughing as does Zinc. Zinc also cause copius


Sore Throats

Selenium and Zinc both cause irritation of the throat.


Lead and Beryllium cause weakness and fatigue.

The report states that "EPA identified five agents in

contaminated dust that are carcinogenic when inhaled

(Arsenic, Beryllium, Cadmium, Chromium, and Nickel (FR 54-

Page 5777)."

It is the children who have suffered, are suffering, and

will continue to suffer the most from the actions or

inactions of this agency. The EPA review and evaluation

report, also described the environmental health hazards faced

by children, particularly from organic chemicals.  According

to the EPA report:

However, children today face hazards in the environment

that were neither known nor suspected only a few decades

ago.  At least 75,000 new synthetic chemical compounds

have been developed and introduced into commerce, fewer

than half of these compounds have been tested for their

potential toxicity to humans, and fewer still have been

assessed for their specific toxicity to children. (FR

Vol.  62, No. 192, October 3, 1997, p. 51854)

Knowing the hazard children face from these organic

chemicals, why has the EPA deleted them from any regulation

in Part 503 sludge rule? Why has the EPA narrowed their list

of organic chemicals for consideration in Round Two of the

Part 503 sludge rule to only PCBs, dioxins, and furans when

there are other organic chemicals that could also be causing


Apparently EPA believes that if it does not have the

data to prove a chemical will kill you, it can safely

expose you and the children to the chemicals. In the Federal

Register/Vol.  58, No, 32/ Friday, February 19, 1993/Rules

and Regulations, p. 9384, EPA says:

There are other pollutants that may have not been

recommended for study because EPA lacked sufficient data

regarding the risk they presented...However, it must be

recognized that the decision to regulate some pollutants

and not others was in part based on the availability of

information on the pollutants...the decision not to

regulate does not necessarily mean that the unregulated

pollutants may not threaten public health and the


One of the criticisms of the Cornell scientists was the

EPA's rationale for not developing standards for some

pollutants because of lack of data to complete a risk

assessment. They say "Lack of adequate data is a serious

limitation to the usefulness of risk assessment, but

ignorance is not a solution to uncertainty." (p. 23)

According to them "The risks posed by some of these suggest a

need for further study and regulation.  Currently, EPA has

eliminated them from consideration in Round 2 of regulation

development and proposes no further research." (p. 23)

In The Gazette, Montreal, Tuesday, June 30, 1998 was a

picture of 5 pregnant Greenpeace members leading a

demonstration denouncing the persistent organic pollutants

(POPs) that have been found in the fetus. The picture was

accompanied by an article by Basem Boshra entitled

"Protesters Decry Poison For Fetus." Jack Weinberg, team

leader for Greenpeace International, spoke out against the

dangers to the fetus through exposure in the womb to organic

chemicals at the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)

conference in Montreal, Canada, which was set up to negotiate

a legally binding treaty by the year 2000 to control

production of 12 persistent organic chemicals (POPs) which

include pesticides like chlordane and DDT and industrial

chemicals like PCBs and dioxin.  Representatives of more than

100 governments and 60 non-governmental organizations,

scientists and representatives of chemical industries

attended the conference.

One of the most deadly pollutants, Dioxin, was one of

those not regulated by the EPA. In a letter regarding the

continued dioxin pollution of our country, with its

astonishing figures on childhood cancers, Lois Gibbs of CCHW/

Center for Health, Environment and Justice, calls for

President Clinton and Vice-President Gore to press EPA to

release the finished dioxin reassessment to the public,

calling 'childhood cancer' the symptom of the larger

poisoning of the American people.  The cancer figures she

quoted in the letter were released by the National Cancer

Institute and the Center for Disease Control. They showed

increased rates in certain cancers between 1975 and 1995 in

children from 0-4 years and in children 15-19 years.

In children from age 0-4 years:

10% increase in leukemia

32% increase in kidney, and renal pelvis cancer

37% increase in soft tissue cancers

53% increase in brain and nervous system cancers

In Children between ages 15-19

29% increase in thryoid

128% increase in Non-Hodgkins lymphoma

78% increase in ovarian cancer

65% increase in testis cancer

39% increase in bone and joint cancers

The Environmental Research Foundation in their

newsletter, Rachel's Environment & Health Weekly, of October

20, 1994 featured a report by the National Cancer Advisory

Board.  The NCAB in their report on cancer had done a

turnabout from their previous position on environmental

causes of cancer, namely from exposure to chemicals.  Before

1994, the official position of the NCAB was that as chemicals

were the cause of only a small percentage of cancers, it

wasn't worth the time or money to investigate them. The NCAB

stated in the report that "The elimination or reduction of

exposure to carcinogenic agents is a priority in the

prevention of cancer.  We are just beginning to understand

the full range of health effects resulting from the exposure

to occupational and environmental agents and factors."  (p.


In an article "Environment and Cancer: Who Are

Susceptible?" in Science in November 7, 1997, Frederica P.

Perera from Division of Environmental Health Sciences,

Columbia University School of Public Health states that

environmental factors play a role in most human cancers.

According to Perera, only about 5% of all cancer is caused by

genetic factors the rest are caused "by external

`environmental' factors that act in conjunction with both

genetic and acquired susceptibility." (p. 1068)

She says that "experimental and epidemiologic data indicate

that, because of differential exposure or physiological

immaturity, infants and children have greater risks than

adults from a number of environmental toxicants." She adds:

The underlying mechanisms may include increased

absorption and retention of toxicants, reduced

detoxification and repair, the higher rate of cell

proliferation during the early stages of development,

and the fact that cancers initiated in the womb and in

the early years have the opportunity to develop over

many decades. (p. 1071)

Immune System Impairment

According to Perera, (1997) one of the factors that

increases susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is

impairment of the immune system. Our bodies major defense

against disease is a healthy immune system.  The immune

system is a complex set of specialized cells (T Cells, B

cells, killer T cells, and B and T memory cells) that defend

the body against attack by "foreign invaders" like bacteria,

viruses and chemicals.

The immune system springs into action as soon as helper

T cells patrolling the bloodstream signal the presence of an

invading bacteria, or virus or chemical substance.

Once the T cells spot an invader a, "foreign body", they

alert other cells-the B cells and killer T cells. While the B

cells are producing antibodies, the killer T cells are

disrupting the takeover of the cell by the invader by

sacrificing the cells already invaded in order to destroy it.

Once the invader is destroyed, armies of the T and B cells,

the memory cells, stay behind ready to more quickly spot the

same invader if it should try to again invade the body.

"The importance of the T-helper cells has been vividly

demonstrated recently by the arrival of the AIDs virus, which

knocks out these key cells, thereby making the body incapable

of mounting a coordinated immune response," say Theo Colborn,

Diane Dumanoski and John Meyers, authors of Our Stolen

Future: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence and

Survival?  (1996)  The devastation of the T-helper cells

allows all kinds of invaders from cancers to fungus to run

amok, which is why AIDS patients typically battle one disease

after another," they say. (pp. 62-3)

J.  Raloff cited a report by the World Resource Institute

(WRI) in an article entitled "Pesticides May Challenge Human

Immunity" in Science News, Vol. 149 on May 9, 1996 which

showed that many pesticides appear capable of compromising

the immune system. The WRI researchers, Robert Repetto and

Sanjay Baliga, came to this conclusion," she says, "after

they surveyed the scientific literature on the immunotoxicity

of widely used pesticides.  Raloff, quotes Alfred Munson of

the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond who noted that

"Other reports have linked pesticides to immune system

problems, but `this certainly is the most comprehensive one'.

(p. 149)

In addition to pesticides, other chemicals that suppress

the immune system are the chlorohydrocarbons, especially the

dioxin TCDD. The 1994 draft of the EPA reassessment of dioxin

study shows that dioxin, especially TCDD, attacks the immune

system by reducing the number of T cells and B cells that

fight off invaders. According to the document, immune

suppression begins in the womb. The draft states that

"Furthermore, because TCDD alters the normal differentiation

of immune system cells, the human embryo may be very

susceptible to long-term impairment of immune function from

utero effects of TCDD on developing immune tissue." (p.  9)

Because of their prenatal exposure, which can weaken the

immune system, children may be less able to fight off disease

than their parents whose exposure to chemicals was limited to

their adulthood.  While a healthy immune system is able to

ward off cancers and other infectious diseases, a damaged

immune system falls prey to them.


Chemicals not only cause havoc by suppressing the immune

system making our bodies less resistant to disease but they

also disrupt the endocrine system by interfering with the

body's hormonal system. In a special Science News Anniversary

Supplement in 1997, Janet Raloff wrote in her article, "A New

World of Pollutant Effects, that a "newly recognized

environmental threat to health and reproduction has

mushroomed into public prominence. Bearing the clumsy moniker

'endocrine disrupters' these pollutants--including PCBs, DDT-

breakdown products, dioxin, and certain plasticizers--can

mimic or block the action of natural hormones" (p. S 19).

When Dr. Theo Colburn, senior scientist at the World

Wildlife Fund, working on a project to assess the

environmental health of the Great Lakes, reviewed over 2000

scientific papers and five hundred government documents, she

made the startling discovery that all the birth defects,

sexual abnormalities and reproductive failure in wildlife

that had been occurring in different parts of the world could

be traced to one source--the synthetic chemicals that

mimicked hormones. In 1996, Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, an

environmental journalist, and John Peterson Myers, an

environmental scientist, wrote Our Stolen Future, in which

they presented compelling scientific evidence linking

synthetic chemical mimicking hormones to sexual

abnormalities, behavioral abnormalities, reproductive failure

and loss of young in wildlife and laboratory animals.

Hormones are chemical messengers that are produced and

released into the blood stream by the endocrine glands (e.g.,

adrenal glands, ovaries, pancreas, parathyroid, pituitary,

testicles, thymus and thyroid). For every hormone there is a

receptor to receive the message. Hormones bind to their

receptors and once they are joined, they move into the

nucleus of the cell to activate genes there to produce a

biological response.

Hormones are important in the growth and development of

living things.  "Genes may be the keyboard, but hormones

present during development compose the tune", Colborn et al

say. (p. 40). They cite the work of Dr.  Frederick vom Saal,

a biologist from the University of Missouri to demonstrate

that it takes only a very small amount of hormones to "change

the tune".

In his experiments with mice, vom Saal found that

exposure to even minuscule amounts of the male hormone,

testosterone, resulted in behavioral changes in female mice.

Female mice, who in their prenatal life were wedged between

male mice and exposed to testosterone secreted by the males'

testicles a week before birth, exhibited masculine

behavior--rattling their tails, chasing and biting. These

aggressive female mice differed from their passive sisters in

several ways.  They matured later and came into heat less

often producing less offspring and were viewed as less

attractive by male mice.

To illustrate how infinitesimally small amounts of

hormones it takes, Colborn et al compared a parts per

trillion of the potent female estrogen hormone, estradiol, to

a "drop of gin in a train of tank cars full of tonic. One

drop in 660 tank cars would be one part in a trillion; such a

train would be six miles long." (p. 40)

While some hormones guide the sexual development of the

fetus, others orchestrate the growth of other systems in the

fetus such as the immune system and nervous system. "They

also 'permanently 'organize' or program cells, organs, the

brain, and behavior before birth, in many ways setting the

individual's course for an entire lifetime," Colborn et al

say. (pp.  39-40) These authors stress that normal

development of all living things "depends on getting the

right hormone message in the right amount to the right place

at the right time." (p. 46) "As this elaborate chemical

ballet rushes forward at a dizzying pace, everything hinges

on timing and proper cues. If something disrupts the cues

during a critical period of development, it can have serious

lifelong consequences for the offspring", they say. (p. 46)

These authors warn of the dire consequences that can

result if there is any interference with the hormonal message

as was the case with diethylstilbestrol (DES). DES, a

synthetic chemical that acted in the body like natural

estrogen,  was widely prescribed in the 1940s and 1950s to

pregnant women to prevent miscarriages and premature birth.

Women who had untroubled pregnancies were even given it "as

if it were a vitamin that could improve on nature." (p. 48)

The market for DES eventually expanded to include other

uses such as suppression of milk production following

childbirth, alleviation of menopausal symptoms (hot flashes),

treatment of prostrate cancer, and gonorrhea in children, and

a "morning after" contraceptive." It was used by farmers as

an "additive to animal feed or in neck or ear implants

because it speeded the fattening of chickens, cows, and other

livestock." (p. 48)

The drug had been given to women for over thirty years

before any harmful effects were discovered. The adverse

effects were not showing up in the women who took the pill

but in their offspring. Daughters born to women who took DES

suffered from reproductive tract deformities and clear-cell

vaginal cancer and cervical cancer.

The link between the drug and the medical problems

suffered by the daughters came to light when a cluster of

cancer cases showed up at Massachusetts General Hospital.

Young women between the ages of 15 and 22 were being

diagnosed with clear-cell cancer of the vagina, an extremely

rare cancer, that usually never showed up in younger women.

In 1971, Dr. Howard Ulfelder, a professor of gynecology

at Harvard Medical School, and David Poskanzer, a medical

epidemiologist, made the connection between the DES taken by

their mothers and the development of cancer by the daughters.

In a paper published in the New England Journal of Medicine,

they reported that seven of the eight young women with clear-

cell cancer of the vagina had mothers who took DES the first

three months of pregnancy.

"This tragic and unintended experiment", Colburn et al

say, "demonstrated that chemicals could cross the placenta,

disrupt the development of the baby, and have serious effects

that might not be evident until decades later." (p.  66)

They add:

Again and again, the DES experience brought home the

common fate of mice and men. Rodent and humans exposed

to DES in the womb suffer identical damage to the

genitals and the reproductive tract, a parallel that

also holds true not just for mammals but for many other

animal types as well...regardless of whether the

offspring is a human or a deer mouse, a whale or a bat,

hormones regulate its development in fundamentally the

same way. (p. 66)

Like DES, certain synthetic chemicals mimic estrogen,

the female hormone. Others mimic androgen, the male hormone

and still others interfere with other systems (e.g., immune

or thyroid). Not all of these chemicals are hormone mimickers

which bind to the receptor like natural hormones and produce

a response.  Some are hormone blockers which, although they

bind to the receptors, do not produce a response; they block

the chemical message instead. When mother rats were exposed

to the hormone blocker, Vinclozolin, a fungicide in wide use,

the result was feminized male rats. The fungicide blocks the

receptor and prevents testosterone signals necessary for male

sexual development from getting through. Although they are

male, (XY chromosome, testicles in the abdomen instead of

ovaries), these feminized rats look like females, act and

think like females and have external female genitals. When

there is any interference with the male hormone,

testosterone, sexual abnormalities occur such as small

penises and undescended testicles.

The neurological effects exhibited by Linda Zander's

grand-children are similar to the effects reported in studies

of laboratory animals and in epidemiological studies of

children exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

Hyperactivity has shown up in laboratory animals (mice, rats

and monkeys) that were exposed to PCBs

Colborn et al (1996) cite several studies that have

investigated the neurological effects on children who were

exposed in the womb through their mother to contaminants.

One of these was a longterm study of children born to mothers

in Taiwan who in 1979 had consumed cooking oil which was

accidentally contaminated with high levels of PCBs and

furans. Of the 128 children studied, some were in the womb

during the time their mothers actually consumed the

contaminated oil, and others were conceived and born after

the period of contamination--their exposure came from

residual contamination within their mothers.

When a series of examinations and tests were conducted

on these children between 1985 and 1992 by researchers headed

by Yue-Liang L. Guo of Taiwan's Department of Occupational

and Environmental Health, they found that the children were

suffering from an array of problems, both physical and

neurological. When some of these children approached puberty,

researchers noted abnormal sexual development in the males--

the boys have significantly shorter penises than unexposed

boys of the same age. The researchers also found that these

Taiwanese children show permanent impairment in both their

motor and mental abilities. Behavioral problems including

higher than normal levels of activity, were also noted. Tests

have repeatedly shown signs of retarded development. These

children scored five points lower on intelligent tests than

similar unexposed children.  Guo and his colleagues believe

the reason that these children have scored lower on IQ tests

is because they are suffering from attention deficits. They

are unable to think as fast as the unexposed children.

Two studies were conducted in the United States to

attempt to discover whether children suffer neurological

damage after exposure through their mothers to the normal

range of contamination found in the environment. In both

studies, there were signs of impaired neurological


When Sandra and Joseph Jacobson (Wayne State University)

examined the children of mothers, who had eaten contaminated

Great Lakes fish ((PCBs and numerous other chemical

contaminants) six years before they became pregnant, they

found signs of impaired cognitive functioning. PCBs, which

are persistent, had accumulated in the body fat of the

mothers and had been passed on to the babies through the

placenta and through breast milk. Children of mothers who had

not eaten any fish were used as a comparison group. At their

birth, the children of fish-eating mothers were different

from the children of nonfish-eating mothers. The higher the

rate of fish consumed by the mother, the lower the birth

weight and the smaller the head circumference of the baby.

When a series of tests were done at birth and at intervals

afterward, there was evidence of neurological impairment.

Of the more than 300 children tested in their study,

those with fisheating mothers, who had eaten greater

quantities of fish, showed, as newborns, weak reflexes and

more jerky, unbalanced movements. When they tested them later

at seven months of age, the researchers found signs of

impaired cognitive function. Tests of these children again at

four years of age revealed that the children of mothers with

the highest PCB levels had lower scores in both verbal and

memory tests than other children.

In the second study, which was done in North Carolina,

neurological tests were done on 866 infants. Their

performance on the tests were compared with the levels of

PCBs which were detected in their mother's breast milk. This

was an indication of exposure in the womb as well as after

their birth. The infants, who were exposed to higher levels

of PCBs through their mothers, showed weaker reflexes. When

follow-up studies were done on them at six and twelve months

of age, they still performed poorly on tests of gross and

fine motor coordination.

A team of psychologists and a physician at the State

University of New York at Oswego are extending the Jacobson's

research on the difference between children of fisheating

mothers and nonfish-eating mothers. They are comparing the

children of mothers who ate Lake Ontario fish with children

of mothers who didn't. In addition to the human study, a

study will be done by Helen Daly on rats who are being fed

fish from Lake Ontario.

"If the human and rat studies find the same changes in

behavior, it will indicate that the results of rat studies

can be generalized to humans, Colborn et al say." (p.  191)

They report that the initial results of the May 1995 study

show "behavioral and neurological differences in the children

of women who had eaten Lake Ontario fish." They say:

In this new study, babies whose mothers had eaten

surprisingly modest amounts of Lake Ontario fish--the

equivalent of forty pounds or more of salmon over a

lifetime, not just during pregnancy--showed a larger

number of abnormal reflexes, expressing greater

immaturity in a lower autonomic response score and

reacted negatively to repeated disturbances... The

babies of women who had eaten no Lake Ontario fish grew

accustomed, or habituated to the disturbances quickly.

Daly's studies with rats fed Lake Ontario salmon showed

changed behavior similar to that observed in human studies.

While the Jacobsons' study found correlations between

neurological symptoms exhibited by the children and their

exposure to PCBs, Daly thinks that more chemicals are

probably involved in the changes that are being seen by the

Oswego researchers. "Estimates for the number of toxic

chemicals released in the Great Lakes basin range as high as

twenty-eight hundred," Colborn et al report. "How many of

them find their way into the salmon and the people who eat

them is anybody's guess" would not be surprising if a

number of chemicals are acting in an additive or synergistic

fashion," they say. (p. 194)

Colborn et al have found that "PCBs and dioxin affect

the thyroid system in diverse, complex, and as yet

incompletely understood ways." (p. 187) They cite the work of

Susan Porterfield, an endocrinologist at the Medical College

of Georgia, who presented evidence that showed "skewed

hormone levels in the womb can cause permanent damage--in

this case, learning disabilities, attention problems, and

hyperactivity". These findings were reported in a June 1994

article in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

In this article, Colburn et al say, Porterfield "outlined her

theory that "very low levels" of PCBs and dioxin--levels well

below those generally recognized as toxic--can alter thyroid

function in the mother and the unborn baby and thereby impair

neurological development." (p.  188)

"Based on the concentrations in breast milk fat of

PCBs" Colburn et al say,"some have estimated that at least

five percent of babies in the United States are exposed to

sufficient levels of contaminants to cause neurological

impairments." Although most of the data on neurological

effects from hormone disruption have concerned PCBs, because

they have been studied more extensively, they are not the

only synthetic chemicals that have targeted the thyroid

system .  Colborn et al., point out that "Save for a few

compounds such as PCBs, we know virtually nothing about the

hazards posed to thinking and behavior by the thousands of

synthetic chemicals in commerce." (p. 186) They say what is

known about the few chemicals like PCBs that have been

studied has "alarming implications."  According to them:

Both animal experiments and human studies report

behavioral disorders and learning disabilities similar

to those reported with increasing frequency among school

children across the nation.  In the United States, an

estimated five to ten percent of school-age children

suffer from a suit of symptoms related to hyperactivity

and attention deficit that make it difficult for them to

pay attention and learn.  Countless others experience

learning problems ranging from difficulty with memory to

impaired fine motor skills that make it harder to hold a

pen and learn how to write. (p. 186)

"With the possibility for multiple assaults on the

thyroid system, the hazards to the developing brain may be

considerable," they warn. (p.  188)

The thyroid system is just one of the systems that

synthetic chemicals affect. The immune system and the

reproductive system are also targets.  Synthetic chemicals

mimicking sexual hormones can wreak havoc causing sexual

abnormalities in the developing fetus that may not show up

for years. Until puberty, feminized males, who had external

female genitals, and breasts and who had grown up as girls,

never knew they were males. When they were examined by

doctors to determine why they hadn't menstruated, they

discovered that they had testicles in their abdomen instead

of ovaries. These feminized males are extreme cases of

hormone disruption.  Small penises and undescended testicles

are found in less severe cases of disruption.  Although a Y-

carrying sperm is first to fertilize the egg, this does not

guarantee a boy. If boys are to become boys, male hormones

have to guide the development of the male sexual organs.

In the first six weeks and more the fetus develops a

pair of unisex gonads and two duct systems, the Wolffian--the

male option and the Mullerian--the female option. About the

seventh week the Y chromosome directs the unisex glands to

develop into testicles. These testicles emanate hormone cues

which if disrupted can have dire consequences in the

development of the male. In order to develop the male body,

hormones have to get rid of the Mullerian ducts--the female

option--and ensure that the Wolffian ducts--the male

option--do not automatically disappear as they are programed

to do by the fourteenth week. Without any hormone

instructions, they will wither and disappear.

Although girls sexual development is not as dependent on

hormone messages as boys, the hormone estrogen plays a part

in the proper development and function of the ovaries.

If the liver, which plays a key role in maintaining hormone

balance by breaking down estrogen and other steroid hormones

to allow for their excretion, is impaired, it could lead to

high estrogen levels which could seriously disrupt sexual

development. Synthetic chemicals can disrupt hormones by

impeding normal liver processes. Mice exposed over a long

period of time to low levels of DDT have higher incidences of

liver tumors.

In July of 1991, an international group of scientists,

which included experts in the fields of anthropology,

ecology, comparative endocrinology, histopathology,

immunology, mammalogy, medicine, law, psychiatry,

psychoneuroendocrinology, reproductive physiology,

toxicology, wildlife management, tumor biology, and zoology,

met at Wingspread in Racine, Wisconsin to discuss the

prevalence and effect of endocrine disrupting chemicals in

the environment. In their concensus statement they said we

are certain of the following:

A large number of man-made chemicals that have been

released into the environment as well as a few natural

ones, have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system

of animals, including humans.  Among these are the

persistent, bioaccumulative, organohalogen compounds

that include some pesticides (fungicides, herbicides,

and insecticides) and industrial chemicals, other

synthetic products, and some metals.

Many wildlife populations are already affected by these

compounds. The impacts include thyroid dysfunction in

birds and fish, decreased fertility in birds, fish,

shellfish, and mammals; decreased hatching success in

birds, fish, and turtles; metabolic abnormalities in

mammals, defeminization and masculinization of female

fish and birds, and compromised immune systems in birds

and mammals.

The pattern of effects vary among species and among

compounds. Four general points can nonetheless be made:

(1) the chemicals of concern may have entirely different

effects on the embryo, fetus, or perinatal organism than

on the adult; (2) the effects are most often manifested

in offspring, not in the exposed parent; (3) the timing

of exposure in the developing organism is crucial in

determining its character and future potential; and (4)

although critical exposure occurs during embryonic

development, obvious manifestations may not occur until


Laboratory studies corroborate the abnormal sexual

development observed in the field and provide biological

mechanisms to explain the observations in wildlife.

Humans have been affected by compounds of this nature,

too. The effect of DES (diethylstilbestrol), a synthetic

therapeutic agent, like many of the compounds mentioned

above, are estrogenic. Daughters born to mothers who

took DES now suffer increased rates of vaginal clear

cell adenocarcinoma, various genital tract

abnormalities, abnormal pregnancies, and some changes in

the immune responses. Both sons and daughters exposed in

utero experience congenital anomalies of their

reproductive system and reduced fertility. The effects

seen in utero DES-exposed humans parallel those found in

contaminated wildlife and laboratory animals, suggesting

that humans may be at risk to the same environmental

hazards as wildlife.

   In a footnote they listed the following chemicals

known to disrupt the endocrine system:

DDT and its degradation products, DEHP (di(2-

ethylhexyl)phthalte), dicofol, HCB (hexachlorobenzene),

kelthane, kepone, lindane and other

hexacholrocyclohexane congeners, methoxychlor,

octachlorostyrene, synthetic pyrethroids, triazine

herbicides, EBDC fungicides, certain PCB congeners,

2,3,7,8-TCDD and other dioxins, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and other

furans, cadmium, lead, mercury, tributyltin and other

organo-tin compounds, alkyl phenols, nondegradable

detergents and antioxidants present in modified

polystyrene and PVCs, styrene dimers and trimers, soy

products, and laboratory animal and pet food products

(Cited in Our Stolen Future, 1996, pp. 252-43)

From this formable list of endocrine-disrupting

chemicals only cadmium, lead and mercury were regulated in

the Part 503 sludge rule for land application of sewage

sludge.  In spite of the danger to developing fetuses and

children from organic endocrine disrupting chemicals like

dioxin, PCBs, some pesticides, fungicides, phenols, etc.,

they were not even regulated in Part 503 sludge rule for land

application of sewage sludge!

The threat of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (on the

reproductive systems, the immune system, the neurological

system, and the liver) has led the National Science and

Technology Council, which was established by President

Clinton in 1993 to assure that science and technology were

part of National Policy, to make it one of the five priority

issues.  President Clinton has allocated $8 million dollars

of new money to fund research on the endocrine disruptors.

One of EPA's assumptions is that most organic chemicals

exist in such low concentrations that they are not considered

to pose a risk to human health and the environment. However,

EPA's own research shows that the most toxic organic

chemicals, the dioxins, particularly the deadly dioxin

2,3,7,8-TCDD, even at very low concentrations can cause

adverse health effects.  According to Michael A.  Callaghan,

Director of the Exposure Assessment Group in the Office of

Environmental Health Assessment, Research and Development in

EPA's Office of Research and Development, in an article

entitled "Dioxin Pathways: Judging Risk to People" in EPA

Journal, May/June of 1989, "Dioxins, especially, 2,3,7,8-

TCDD, are treated as very potent toxicants that may cause

health effects at quite low levels of exposure." (p.  31)

EPA claims that it has set a standard below which the

risk is so small that from a regulatory point of view there

would be no need to worry about any adverse effects from

exposure to the metals or chemicals--a negligible risk is

usually 1 in a million.  The basis for the classical dose-

response curve used today by many regulatory agencies goes

back to the 16th century principle of Paracelsus, a Swiss

physician, in which the "biological response to a foreign

substance increases as the dose becomes greater", say Colborn

et al (p.  205) In other words, things that are not poisonous

in small quantities can be lethal in large doses.  According

to them, this dose-response curve does not work with hormone

systems.  They explain why by using the working of the

estrogen hormone as an example. They say:

Thus a natural hormone or a chemical imposter can

produce effects at low levels because very few receptors

are needed to trigger a response.  In the case of

estrogen, the hormone needs to bind to only one percent

of the receptors contained in a cell to stimulate cell

proliferation. But as the level of hormones or hormone

mimics rises higher and higher, the system eventually

responds by shutting down and showing little or no

response as if to an overload. (p.  206)

No one really knows what safe levels are for many of

these pollutants, let alone what risks may be posed by

multiple compounds acting synergistically.  Dioxins are of

special concern because of their pervasiveness, toxicity and

persistence.  They are suspected of causing cancer, immune

system impairment, fertility problems, behavioral and

learning disorders, and a range of other health problems.

Like metals they build up in the body's fatty tissue over the

course of a lifetime, and according to EPA documents we carry

a near dangerous amount already in our bodies.

Scientists keep finding significant, often permanent

effects at surprisingly low doses. The danger we face is

not simply death and disease. By disrupting hormones and

development, these synthetic chemicals may be changing

who we become. They may be altering our destinies

Colborn et al warn. (p. 197)

Colburn et al., puts the problem in perspective when

they state, "In truth, no one yet knows how much it takes of

these synthetic hormone-disrupting chemicals to pose a hazard

to humans."  They say that "All evidence suggests that it may

take very little if the exposure occurs before birth. In the

case of dioxin at least, the recent studies have shown that

human exposure is sufficient to be of concern." (p. 140

They add:

As Fred vom Saal has discovered, vanishingly small

amounts of free estrogen are capable of altering the

course of development in the womb--as little as one-

tenth of a part per trillion. Given this exquisite

sensitivity, even small amounts of a weak estrogen

mimic--a chemical that is one thousand times less potent

than the estradiol made by the body itself--may

nevertheless spell trouble. (p.  141)

Even more worrisome, scientists are now finding evidence

that hormone-disrupting chemicals can act together and that

small, seemingly insignificant quantities of individual

chemicals can have a major cumulative effect.  Ana Soto and

Carlos Sonnenshein have now demonstrated this with breast

cancer cells in cultures.  When they exposed the estrogen-

sensitive breast cells individually to small quantities of

ten chemicals known to be estrogen mimics, they found no

significant growth in cells.  But the cells showed pronounced

proliferation when these same small quantities of the same

ten chemicals were given together.

In an interview in EPA Journal, (May 1984), Erich

Bretthauer, Director of ORD's Office of Environment Processes

and Effects Research, who coordinates the Office's dioxin

research, said "one form in particular, 2,3,7,8,-

tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) has been shown to

be extremely toxic in animals at very low level and to

persist in the environment. (p. 26)

In the Environmental Research Foundation's weekly

newsletter, Rachel's Hazardous Waste News, in March 21, 1990,

the supreme toxicity of dioxin is shown with a comparison to

a single aspirin tablet. The newsletter states:

One aspirin tablet weighs 5 grains (or 325 milligrams,

or 325 trillion femtograms), so to express one "safe"

lifetime dose of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, you would take a single

aspirin tablet and divide it into 32 million (actually

32,172,218) minuscule pieces. Then one of those tiny

pieces would represent one "safe" lifetime dose of 2,3,


When the authors of the newsletter compared the

reference dose (where there is suppose to be no adverse

effect) of dioxin which is 0.000,000,001 milligrams per

kilogram of body weight per day with the reference doses for

cadmium and arsenic which is 0.001 mg/kg/day, they found that

dioxin is considered by the EPA to be a million times more

toxic than cadmium and arsenic.

According to Toxics A to Z, for dioxins "quantitative

and widely accepted dose-response information is also

lacking." (p. 297) The guide states "But the minimum dose of

dioxin needed to cause cancer in animals varies by as much as

a factor of 5000 from one species to another, so drawing

conclusions from these studies about the sensitivity of

people is difficult." (p. 297)

When evaluating the organic chemicals for the proposed

Part 503 sludge rule (they were deleted in the final Part

503 sludge rule), EPA evaluated them one chemical at a time

using only one pathway of exposure.  The evaluation did not

address multiple exposures from several pathways (e.g.,

(inhalation and ingestion). Nor did the evaluation address

how different organic chemicals interact. So if we accept

EPA's assumption (which we don't) that individually organic

chemicals occur in such low concentrations as not to cause

harm, what happens when these chemicals are mixed together?

Although interactions of chemicals were not addressed in the

Part 503 sludge rule, both Lee M. Thomas, former

Administrator of the EPA, and Dr. Bernard Goldstein,

Assistant Administrator for Research and Development at EPA,

in the 1980s were aware that this was a problem that should

be considered in any evaluation of a chemical. In an article

entitled "Solving Tough Environmental Problems in EPA Journal

(198 ) Thomas stated:

It goes without saying, however, that studying

pollutants individually, though necessary, is hardly

sufficient. We need to analyze entire metropolitan

regions over long periods to determine how pollutants

interact and how various strategies can minimize their


Dr. Goldstein, when interviewed for an article entitled

"Research at EPA: An Interview with Dr. Bernard Goldstein" in

EPA Journal, (May 1984) said:

We also have to start spending a lot more time and

effort in the area of interactions of pollutants.  For

instance, we know that even though we do our research

for the most part with one chemical at a time, in fact

in the real world there are multiple pollutants all

occurring at the same time. Some are in air and some are

in water. (p. 3)


Neurological damage is not only caused by endocrine-

disrupting chemicals but by some toxic heavy metals, in

particular lead. The children in the South Bronx and the

Zander grand-children suffered damage from exposure to lead.

Children can be exposed to lead through inhalation and

ingestion. A large body of evidence shows that even tiny

doses of lead can have adverse health consequences for

infants and small children.  Lead crosses the placenta and

makes the developing fetuses vulnerable to the myriad effects

from lead poisoning.  The findings on lead toxicity compiled

by the EPA that were reported in the Federal Register/Vol.

56, No, 110/ Friday, June 7, 1991 showed "when lead is

absorbed by the body, it immediately enters the blood. The

concentration of lead in whole blood has been associated with

a spectrum of pathophysiological conditions." Among these

conditions are:

1) Interference with the production of red blood cells

2) Kidney damage, and impaired reproductive function

3) Impaired cognitive performance of children shown by

 IQ tests

4) Delayed neurological and physical development of


5) Hyperactivity and decreased attention span of


6) Deficits in mental indices of babies with lead

 contamination as low as 5-6 micrograms per deciliter

 in the umbilical cord blood

7) Low birth weights and decreased gestational age which

 interferes with early neurological development

8) Small increases in adult blood pressure has been

 associated with as little as 5 micrograms of lead per

 deciliter of blood

9) Early childhood growth reductions has been caused by

 blood lead concentrations as low as 5 micrograms per


According to Dr. Stan Tackett, a leading expert on lead

and its effects on health, particularly of children, one of

the greatest immediate dangers from the contaminant lead is

dust which can be both inhaled and ingested. He says:

One application of sewage sludge to a field places more

lead in the top layer of soil than did 50 years of

driving with leaded gasoline.  During dry times, the

dust produced from the field has the same high lead

content as the top layer of soil.  Blowing dust enters

homes and settles on floors where babies crawl and on

kitchen counter tops where food is prepared. In wet

times, mud tracked from the field into homes turns to

dust.  If the dust is breathed into the lungs, all of

the lead dissolves in the moist lung sacs and is

absorbed into the blood stream. If the lead is ingested

into the stomach with food, water or from dirty fingers,

children absorb about 50 percent of the lead while

adults absorb about 10 percent.

In their research reported in an article in "Childhood

Lead Poisoning" in the New England Journal of Medicine, Nov.

3, 1983, Dr. Eva Charney and Dr. Barry Kessler, (physicians),

Mark Farfel, and David Jackson studied the effectiveness of

dust control factors as an aid in helping to reduce the blood

lead levels in children with Class II or Class III lead

poisoning, because lead-contaminated house dust was believed

to be a significant factor in childhood lead poisoning. They

selected children from a lead poisoning clinic that were

between 15 and 72 months of age with blood lead levels of 30-

49 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood (0.30 to 0.49

parts per million) An experimental and control group were set

up. The only difference between the groups was that the

dust-control measures used on the experimental groups were

not done on the control group.  When the two groups were

compared, the mean blood-lead level for the experimental

group had dropped in a year while the mean for the control

group showed no change.  In fact, two children had increases

in blood lead level.  Charney and her co-workers concluded

that although their study demonstrated that the dust-control

measures were effective in reducing lead levels, the need for

the measures should be eliminated by removing the lead from

children's environment.  They ended their report with a quote

from researcher J.S.Lin-Fu who said:

The dispersion of lead in our environment is man-made. A

price must be paid for what we have done to our

environment in the past. The crucial question is: shall

we pay it in controlling our environment or shall we pay

in terms of the health of thousands of children in our

lifetime and millions in generations to come."

Urban children are exposed to lead in dust when the

EQ sludge fertilizer, which is in a dried form, is spread on

the lawn and garden and not incorporated into the soil.

According to the EPA, "homeowners fertilizing their lawns are

unlikely to incorporate the sewage sludge product into an

already established lawn.  Instead, they would just spread it

on the surface where small children could be exposed." (FR

1993 p.  9296) In addition to inhaling the dust from the

fertilizer, children can also eat the sludged dirt containing

lead or drink lead-contaminated water.

How much sewage sludged-soil do children ingest?

According to Pathway 3 in Part 503, the sewage sludge

ingestion rate used was 0.2 grams (dry weight) per day for

five years. Recent work by E. Stanek and E. Calabrese

reported in the article "Daily Estimates of Soil Ingestion in

Children" in the Environmental Health Perspectives (1995)

suggests that EPA's standards may be based on numbers nine

times less protective than they should be. When they

reanalyzed their classic Amherst soil ingestion data, they

found "the analysis represents 'a striking divergence from

past soil ingestion estimates generated from the same data."

As they note, this new study constitutes "a striking

departure from the recommendations of EPA," and constitutes a

value nearly nine-fold higher than EPA guidelines. "Because soil ingestion
is often a driving factor in the risk

assessment process for contaminated sites," Stanak and

Calabrese conclude, "the implications of the current findings

are likely to be substantial in terms of both estimated human

health risks and in site-remediation costs."

According to Dr. Tackett, "Lead in our environment and

its effect on the minds and bodies of young children was and

continues to be one of the most serious health problems faced

by our society." He says:

The dangers to public health of even low concentrations

of lead, especially to young children, prompted some

divisions of the EPA to take decisive steps to reduce

lead contamination in the environment.  Two major

industries, automobile and petroleum, had to completely

revamp their way of doing business. Today, cars use only

non-leaded gasoline and only non-leaded gasoline is sold

by most oil refiners. In June of 1991, EPA announced

very stringent new regulations regarding the allowable

levels of lead in drinking water. The old regulation

allowed 50 parts per billion. EPA declared 5 parts per

billion were too high, and set a goal of "0" lead in

drinking water.

With all the information the EPA has on the harmful

effects of lead, it is incredible that the limit for lead set

by the EPA in their risk assessment for Part 503, which was

200 ppm less than their model recommended, is the same level

that the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) deems

dangerous.  For the last 30 years, instead of asking how to

prevent lead poisoning, the medical community has taken a

risk assessment approach which first said in 1960 that it was

safe to put 60 micrograms of lead to each deciliter of blood.

In 1975, discovering that 60 micrograms of lead to each

deciliter of blood was not a safe level, the medical

community reduced the 60 mcg/dl of lead to 30 mcg/dl which by

1985 they discovered was also not a safe level further

reducing it to 25 mcg/dL as the safe level. That too turned

out to be wrong. In October 1991, the U.S. Centers for

Disease Control and Prevention reduced its official

"intervention level" from 25 micrograms of lead per deciliter

of blood (ug/dl) to 10 ug/dl. It was the third such reduction

since 1970. They set this level because it was the level

where the current scientific evidence for damage was


What happened to the children who had more than 10

mcg/dl of lead in their blood because of the mistakes of the

medical community over the years? The American Academy of

Pediatrics says such losses are permament and they translate

into reduced educational attainment, diminished job

prospects, and reduced earning power.  Innocent children had

to pay a high price because risk assessments of the safe

level of lead in the blood was wrong.

When the American Academy of Pediatrics reviewed 18

scientific studies showing that lead diminished a child's

mental abilities, they found that the relationship between

lead levels and IQ deficits were remarkably consistent. Their


A number of studies have found that for every 10 mcg/dl

increase in blood lead levels, there was a lowering of

mean (average) IQ in children by 4 to 7 points.  This

may not sound like a major loss, but an average IQ loss

of 5 points puts 50% more children in the IQ 80

category, which is borderline for normal intelligence.

It also reduces the number of high IQs, for example, one

small group that should have contained 5 children with

IQs of 125 contained none.

Two groups of children in first and second grade--one

with 25 mcg/dl and the other with 35 mcg/dl--were

studied into adulthood. The high-lead group was seven

times as likely not to graduate from high school and six

times as likely to have reading scores two grades below

expected, after adjusting for a number of factors,

including socioeconomic status and parental IQ. The

high-lead children also had higher absenteeism in their

final year of school, lower class rank, poorer

vocabulary and grammatical reasoning scores, longer

reaction times, and poorer hand-eye coordination.

According to Colborn et al., the loss of five points in

IQ could be catastrophic. They say:

With the current average IQ score of 100, a population

of 100 million will have 2.3 million intellectually

gifted people who score above 130.  Though it might not

sound like much if the average were to drop just five

points to 95, it would have "staggering" implications,

according to Bernard Weiss, a behavioral toxicologist at

the University of Rochester who has considered the

societal impact of seemingly small losses.  Instead of

2.3 million, only 990,000 would score over 130, so this

society would have lost more than half of its high-

powered minds with the capacity to become the most

gifted doctors, scientists, college professors,

inventors, and writers. At the same time this downward

shift would result in a greater number of slow learners

with IQ scores around 70, who would require special

remedial education, an already costly educational

burden, and who may not be able to fill many of the more

highly skilled jobs in a technological society.  Given

the daunting array of problems we face as nations and as

a world community, the last thing we can afford is the

loss of human intelligence and problem-solving powers.

(p.  236)

Guinea Pigs

The most frightening implication from these studies on

the effects of synthetic chemicals on children is that before

a child is born his/her future may already have been decided.

Whether a child is retarded, average, or intellectually

gifted depends on whether he/she received the right thyroid

hormone at the right time in the right amount prenatally. If

hormone mimicking synthetic chemicals played havoc with any

of the systems of the developing fetuses, severe life time

consequences would be the result.

If the developing fetus managed to somehow avoid the

damage from endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the womb,  and

be born without defects, he/she as growing children still

face other threats--various cancers and harm to the different

bodily systems from exposure to toxic organic chemicals and

heavy metals like lead.

Colburn et al., found from their extensive review of the

scientific literature that when researchers have tried to set

up experimental groups of children who have been contaminated

by pollutants with an uncontaminated group of children, they

were unsuccessful because there were no uncontaminated groups

of children. They say "tragically, no children today are born

chemical free....Even Inuits living a traditional lifestyle

in remote regions of Arctic have not escaped. The pollution

has come to them."  (p.  240)

Our children have been and are still guinea pigs in the

world laboratory where scientists are and will be studying

the effects on them from exposure to thousands of toxic

chemicals, such as pesticides, fungicides, PCBs, and dioxins,

that our government has allowed to pollute the air they

breathe, the water they drink and the food they eat. Like

trapped rats in a cage, they are helpless to protect

themselves and we have been helpless to protect them against

the onslaught of these toxic chemicals that insidiously

attack their bodily systems (immune, neurological, endocrine

and reproductive) causing irreversible damage and even death.

We have unknowingly allowed our government to make

"guinea pigs" out of our children because we have naively

believed that its  environmental protection agency would

protect them from any harm from anything toxic in their

environment.  We and our children have been the victims of a

deadly deception at the hands of the very agency that was

instituted to protect public health and the environment.

We have been deceived by their high price PR propaganda

that assured us there would be no adverse health effects from

exposure to the deadly toxic soup in sewage sludge. We have

been lulled into believing that although the toxic heavy

metals and organic chemicals are poisonous at high levels, at

low levels they will pose no danger.

How many of our children must be sacrificed on the alter

of avarice before we put a stop to it. We must no longer

tolerate practices like the land application of sewage sludge

which exposes our children to toxic chemicals and heavy

metals that can permanently damage them, robbing them of a

productive life and a future with promise. We must stop the

assault on their bodily systems before it is too late.

Children must be protected from harm from these deadly

agents.  "The magnitude of the damage that has already

occurred should leave any thoughtful person profoundly

shaken," Colburn et al., say (p.  240)

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