VIRUSES in SEWAGE Effluent and Sludge - BIOSOLIDS
                                                                  Part 503 list -1989
                                           This list was removed from the final 1993 Part 503


Occurrence of Pathogens in Distribution and Marketing Municipal Sludges (1988)
EPA Pathogen list from Part 503 (1989)



6.   Entroviruses: -----------------------------------------no disease

Includes Rhino viruses and Foot & Mouth Disease virus Enteroviral diseases/epidemics in the US occur in summer-fall.
Epidemic pleurodynia, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, and poliomyelitis are caused almost exclusively by

They are spread throughout the body through the blood stream. Generally mild, but
infections may cause serious disease e.g. paralytic poliomyelitis, meningitis, or
myocarditis. (Merck)

7.     Poliovirus  ------------------------Gastroenteritis, meningitis, carditis, nervous system
                                                  involvement,  pneumonia, infectious hepatitis

Symptoms : headache, fever, meningism, aseptic meningitis and muscle pains, and finally muscle paralysis, respiratory
paralysis and death (Merck)

8.    Coxsackieviruses ----------------------------------- Infectious Hepatitis

minor flu-like illness without jaundice, may lead to profound anorexia, malaise, nausea and vomiting, and, often, fever
or right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Urticaria and arthralgias occasionally occur, urine darkens, followed by
jaundice (the icteric phase), liver is usually enlarged and tender, but the edge of the liver remains soft and smooth.
Mild splenomegaly occurs in 15 to 20% of patients. liver diseases, from a subclinical carrier state to severe or fulminant
acute hepatitis, particularly in the elderly, in whom mortality can reach 10 to 15%. Hepatocellular carcinoma can
ultimately develop in chronic HBV [Hepatitis B] infection, even without being preceded by cirrhosis. chronic hepatitis is
usually asymptomatic or benign but progresses to cirrhosis in 20 to 30% of patients; cirrhosis often takes decades to
appear. Hepatocellular carcinoma can result from HCV [Hepatitis C] -induced cirrhosis.  (Merck)

9.     Echovirus --------------------------------------------no disease


10.   Hepatitis A (HAV)--------------------------------------no disease

Hepatitis A virus (HAV), a major cause of infectious hepatitis in humans, is a positive strand RNA virus belonging to the
hepatovirus group of the picornavirus family. Primary detection of HAV in clinical or biological samples is not routinely
possible at present because wild-type HAV grows very poorly in cell culture. Except for virus preparations that have
been adapted for rapid growth in cell culture, HAV does not produce a detectable cytopathic effect in infected cells.

It is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis and is particularly common in children and young adults.
Waterborne and food-borne epidemics (Merck)

11.   Norwalk ---------------------------------------=  Gastroenteritis

12.    Norwalk like viruses -------------------------- Gastroenteritis

13.    Reovirus ----------------------------------------- Respiratory infections,  gastroenteritis

14     Rotavirus ---------------------------------------  Gastroenteritis, infant diarrhea

(Yanko, 1989) 110 enteric viruses are recognized and may be present in sewage.