Sludge Disposal: Sanitary Landfill-Open Dump-Superfund Site?

Journal of Proceedings of the New Mexico Conference On The Environment, sponsored by Governor Bruce
King, September 13-15, 1992. The Proceeding were published in February 1993

The EPA's own research, which is stated in the preamble to the new proposed (Coded Federal Regulation
Section 40, Parts 257 and 503) sludge regulation, has documented in addition to the toxic heavy metals, a
list of 25 primary pathogens in sewage sludge.  Among these are: 1) five bacteria pathogens
(Campylobacter, Escherichia,  Salmonella, Shigetla, and Vibrio Cholerae), 2) nine viruses pathogens
(Entroviruses, Poliovirus, Coxsackieviruses,  Echovirus, Hepatitis A, Norwalk and Norwalk like viruses,
Reovirus, and Rotavirus), 3) five helminth pathogens  (among them are Hookworms, Tapeworms, and
Nematode worms), 4) five protozoans pathogens (Toxoplasma gondii, Balantidium, Entamoeba histolyca,
Giardia lambia, and Crytosporidium), and 5) one fungi pathogen  (Aspergillus).

Most of these pathogens are very deadly to humans and animals. Although the bacteria pathogens
Campylobacter Jejuni and Escherichia primarily cause a relative mild case of diarrhea, Salmonella, Shigetla
and Vibrio cholerae effect the gastrointestinal tract and can be fatal. Of the nine viruses, Entroviruses or
Picornaviruses (152 species) pathogens can cause gastrointestinal problems, respiratory problems and can
also be fatal. Poliovirus (3 species) pathogens cause inflammation of the grey matter of the spinal cord.  
Coxsackievirus A (23 species), B (6 species) pathogens are mostly mild, but they can cause inflammation of
the heart in newborns. While Echovirus (31 species) pathogens primarily cause inflammation of the heart,
spinal cord and brain, Hepatitis A virus pathogens cause liver problems and can lead to death. Norwalk
viruses and Norwalk like virus pathogens cause mostly diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and Rotavirus
causes acute gastroenteritis.

The five Helminth pathogens (primarily, Hookworms, Tapeworms and Nematode Worms) cause damage to
vital organs, brain, retina vessels, liver, lung and heart.  The five Protozoan pathogens cause intestinal,
respiratory, and liver problems.  The one fungi pathogen, Aspergillus, causes inflamed tissues in bronchi,
lungs, aural canal, skin and membranes of the eye, nose or urethra (Federal Register (FR), 54, P.5829