1990--1999 Studies That Affect Your Health Through Contaminated Food and Water From Sewage
(188) 12/4/2010

Highlights
This period saw EPA Office of Water ignore all previous science  concerning infectious agents and
carcinogens in sludge and dropped the previous information from the final sludge rule. Scientists report the
survival of bacteria in sludge aggregates (biofilms) and that sludge use puts the national economy at risk.
EPA split the solid waste sludge disposal regulation 40 CFR 257 into three parts: Part 257 - industrial
treatment plant sludge; Part 258 -- municipal treatment plant sludge co-disposed in a landfill; and Part 503
-- "Standards apply to publicly and privately owned treatment works that generate or treat domestic sewage
sludge" from humans or household operations for use as a fertilizer and/or soil amendment or disposed of
in a sludge only landfill (monofill) or incinerated. The closer to the public -- the less regulation. Scientists
discovered sludge was actually biofilms that could damage health and the environment. EPA created its
public relations campaign to cover up the damage with its "Candidates for the Rest of the Story" to be run
by the Water Environment Federal funded by EPA and Congress. While some scientists and organizations
produced studies claiming sludge use was safe if the laws and regulations were followed, other scientists
were following the damage done by gene swapping bacteria without making the connection. Writers also
followed the lack of science behind the rules and damages caused by sludge use.

1990
Behavior of drug resistant fecal coliforms and R plasmids in a wastewater treatment plant (1990)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2131972

Expression of type 8 capsular polysaccharide and production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 are
associated among vaginal isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. (1990)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC268243/

High prevalence of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in faecal samples of students in the south-east of
The Netherlands (1990), http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/4/585.abstract

Improved Membrane Filtration Method Incorporating Catalase and Sodium Pyruvate for Detection of
Chlorine-Stressed Coliform Bacteria (1990)
http://thewatchers.us/viable-nonculturable/aem00092-0336-1-Recoveryofbacteria.pdf

Layered Structure of Bacterial Aggregates [biofilms] Produced in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed and
Filter Reactor (1990), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC184478/pdf/aem00087-0102.pdf

Nutrients for Bacterial Growth in Drinking Water: Bioassay Evaluation (EPA) 600/S2-89/030 (1990)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1/1990-bacterial-regrowth-drinkin-water-systems.pdf

Pathogen Risk Assessment for Land Application of Municipal Sludge Volume 1: Methodology and
Computer Model, Volume II: User's Manual (1990)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/14/risk-EPA.pdf

The 1991 part 258 sludge/Biosolids Co-Disposal regulation lists 220 hazardous chemicals.,
http://deadlydeceit.com/ConH.html

    Water Environment Fact Sheet -- Biosolids Recycling: Grounded in Sound Science
    http://deadlydeceit.com/WEF-PR.html

    A Guide to the Biosolids Risk Assessments for the EPA Part 503 Rule --Chapter 6. (1995)
    (According to EPA,the sludge health risk assessment was only based on looking at 13
    organic chemicals which were either already banned, no longer manufactured or
    restricted for use. These were dropped from consideration in the rule.)
    http://www.epa.gov/owm/mtb/biosolids/503rule/503g_ch6.pdfE

Persistence of Pathogens in Lagoon-Stored Sludge (EPA) 600/S2-89/015 (1990)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1990-pathogens-lagoon-sludge.pdf

Public Health Implications of the Microbial Pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis: An Epidemiological Study,
Oregon, 1985-86 (1990), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1404979/

Resistance to metal ions and antibiotics in Escherichia cob isolated from foodstuffs (1990)
http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/32/4/223

Review of Progress in Biotechnology-Microbial Pest Control Agent Risk Assessment Program (EPA)
600/9-90/029 (1990), http://thewatchers.us/EPA/10/1990-biotechnology.pdf

Stroke in infective endocarditis (1990)
http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/21/5/695.pdf

Temperature Range for Growth of Escherichia coli Serotype 0157:H7 and Selected Coliforms in E. coli
Medium (1990), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC267801/pdf/jcm00052-0174.pdf

1991
40 CFR 268 Land Disposal Restriction: Potential Treatment Standards for New Identified Listed Wastes
and Contaminate d Waste (EPA) 530/9111-1991.5/ 0060 (1991)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/4/1991-disposal-restrictions.pdf

Bacterial resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin antibiotics by target modification.
(1991), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC245156/

Ecology of Bacteriophages Infecting Activated Sludge Bacteria (1991)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC183542/pdf/aem00061-0047.pdf

Evaluation of Exposure Markers (EPA) 600/S4-90/034 (1991)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/10/1991-exposure-markers-genotoxic.pdf

Distribution and transferability of plasmids encoding  trimethoprim resistance in urinary pathogens from
Greece (1991), http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/34/3/153.pdf

SURVIVAL OF FECAL COLIFORMS AND FECAL STREPTOCOCCI IN STORM DRAIN SEDIMENT (1991)
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/29168/1/0000214.pdf

Survival of pathogenic micro-organisms and parasites in excreta, manure and sewage sludge. (1991)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1782431

Viable but Nonculturable Bacteria in Drinking Water (1991)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC182810/pdf/aem00056-0261.pdf

Trehalose Synthesis Genes Are Controlled by the Putative Sigma Factor Encoded by rpoS and Are
Involved in Stationary-Phase Thermotolerance in Escherichia coli (1991)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC212585/pdf/jbacter01042-0188.pdf


1992
A novel DNA-binding protein with regulatory and protective roles in starved Escherichia coli. (1992)
http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/6/12b/2646.full.pdf

Apramycin resistance plasmids in Escherichia coli: possible transfer to Salmonella typhimurium in calves
(1992), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2271986/pdf/epidinfect00032-0061.pdf

Control of Biofilm Growth in Drinking Water Distribution Systems (EPA) 625/R-92/001 (1992)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1/1992-biofilm-water-systems-control.pdf

Cross-contamination potential with dental equipment (1992)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1359320

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli -- MINIREVIEW (1992) (five categories: enterotoxigenic,
enteroinvasive, enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteroaggregative, and enteropathogenic (EPEC). -- It has
recently been appreciated that EPEC strains represent a group of clonally derived organisms that may
be more related to each other than to other E. coli organisms with the same 0-antigen type (7, 72, 90).)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC257423/pdf/iai00034-0015.pdf

Establishment of Aging Biofilms: Possible Mechanism of Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Therapy
(1992), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC191585/pdf/aac00041-0025.pdf

Environmental Regulations and Technology: Control of Pathogens and Vector Attraction in Sewage
Sludge:  Sludge Pathogens, Chapter 2, (EPA) 625R92013 (1992),
http://thewatchers.us/environment/625R92013chap2pathogens.pdf

EPA MEMO ON PROPOSED 503 SLUDGE RULE.
http://deadlydeceit.com/1992-proposed-503-memo.html

Establishment of Aging Biofilms: Possible Mechanism of Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Therapy
(1992), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC191585/pdf/aac00041-0025.pdf

Methods For The Detection of Microorganisms In the Environment (EPA) 703-R-92-001 (1992)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/11/1992-detection-microorganisms-environment.pdf

Preliminary Risk Assessment for Bacteria in Municpal Sewage Sludge Applied to Land (EPA) 600/S6-
91/006 (1992), http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1/1992-pathogen-risk-model.pdf

The Crisis in Antibiotic Resistance (1992)
http://web.njit.edu/~russell/Downloads2/Neu%201992.pdf

Transferable antibiotic resistance among thermotolerant coliforms from rural drinking water in India
(1992), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2272228/pdf/epidinfect00034-0118.pdf

Trehalose Synthesis Genes Are Controlled by the Putative Sigma Factor Encoded by rpoS and Are
Involved in Stationary-Phase Thermotolerance in Escherichia coli (1991)
http://thewatchers.us/pathogens/picrenderstationaryphaseE-coli.pdf

1993
40 CFR Part 257 et al. Part II, (503_ Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge; Final Rules
822-Z-93-001, (1993), No one noticed this rule is not for a mixture of industrial and domestic sludge! ((1)
This part establishes standards, which consist of general requirements, pollutant limits, management
practices, and operational standards, for the final use or disposal of sewage sludge generated during
the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works.  Domestic sewage is waste and waste water from
humans or household operations that is discharged to or otherwise enters a treatment works.)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/15/1993-503-searchable.pdf

    PREAMBLE TO THE 503 SLUDGE RULE ADMITS LACK OF SCIENCE (1993)
    http://deadlydeceit.com/1993_503_peramble_lack.html

    List of known carcinogens pollutants in PREAMBLE TO PART 503  SLUDGE RULES (1989)
    http://deadlydeceit.com/1989_503_cancer_list.html

    List of 25 primary families of known disease causing organisms in PREAMBLE TO PART 503
    SLUDGE RULES (1989), http://deadlydeceit.com/1989_503_pathogens.html

    Table 1 of § 503.13_Ceiling Concentrations Pollutants Land Application
    http://deadlydeceit.com/503-13.html

    Table 1 of § 503.23_Pollutant Concentrations_Active Sludge Only Landfill
    http://deadlydeceit.com/503-23.html

    503.9(t) Pollutant is an organic substance, an inorganic substance, a combination of organic and
    inorganic substances, or a pathogenic organism that, after discharge and upon exposure,
    ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into an organism either directly from the environment or
    indirectly by ingestion through the food chain, could, on the basis of information available to the
    Administrator of EPA, cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations,
    physiological malfunctions (including malfunction in reproduction), or physical deformations in
    either organisms (humans) or offspring (children) of the organisms.
    http://deadlydeceit.com/503-9.html

    Part 503 authorizes Federally Permitted Releases of hazardous substances under CERCLA
    (Superfund) which has an exception for a Normal Application of Fertilized. (1993)
    http://thewatchers.us/EPA/federally-permitted-release.html

    40 CFR Parts 403 and 503, Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge; Final Rule and
    Proposed Rule Deletion of Pollutant Limits for Chromium in Land Applied Sewage Sludge (EPA)
    (1995)
    http://thewatchers.us/EPA/15/1995-403-503.pdf

    EPA action which removed Chromium from the Sludge/biosolid Use Section of Part 503
    http://deadlydeceit.com/1995-Chromium_removed.html

    Chromium
    http://deadlydeceit.com/503_Chromium.html

    EPA APPROVES 100,000 PPM OF CHROMIUM IN LAND APPLIED SLUDGE/BIOSOLIDS (1999)
    http://deadlydeceit.com/1999-Chromium-100000.html

    PUBLIC RELATION CAMPAIGN: Candidates for the Rest of the Story. (1994) ( EPA'S
    PUBLIC RELATIONS CAMPAIGN FRONTED BY THE WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION
    CLAIMS THEIR HAS NEVER BEEN A DOCUMENTED CASE OF HARM FROM SLUDGE
    http://deadlydeceit.com/EPA-PR.html

    Water Environment Federation's Response to Candidates for the Rest of the Story. Biosolids Fact
    Sheets, http://thewatchers.us/wef/fact-sheets.html

    Questions and Answers on the Part 503 Risk Assessments (EPA) Chapter 6, A Guide to the Part
    503 Risk Assessment. (1995), -- No risk assessment of pathogens, chemicals and did not
    consider heavy metals to be cancer causing Even though 5 are listed as carcinogens by
    inhalation.
    http://thewatchers.us/EPA/503g_ch6.pdf


A Focus of EPA's Research -- Microorganisms Associated with Waterborne Disease (EPA) (1993)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1/1993-waterborne-diseases.pdf

Antibiotic Resistance in Enteric Bacterial Isolates From Fish and Water Media (1993)
http://www.unilorin.edu.ng/publications/olayemi/Antibiotic%20Resistance%20in%20Enteric%20Bacterial%
20Isolates%20From%20Fis.pdf

Epidemiological Studies of Neurotoxic, Reproductive, and Carcinogenic Effects of Complex Mixtures
(1993), http://thewatchers.us/infections/Neurologic-protocol-UNC-1992.pdf

Multiresistant Serratia sp. Isolated from the Marine Environment (1993)
http://www.revbiolmar.cl/escaneados/281-37.pdf

Near-Bottom Pelagic Bacteria at a Deep-Water Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (1993)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC182466/

Outbreaks of Food-Borne and Waterborne Viral Gastroenteritis (1993)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC358282/pdf/cmr00036-0017.pdf

Pathogenesis of Hemorrhage-Induced Bacteria/Endotoxin Translocation in Rats, Effects of Recombinant
Bactericidal/ Permeability-increasing Protein,
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/5/1995-hemorrhage-induced.pdf

Preliminary Risk Assessment for Pathogens in Landfilled Municipal Sewage Sludge (EPA) 600/R-94/110
(1993), http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1/1993-pathogen-risk-sludge-landfill.pdf

Respiratory function in sewage workers (1993)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajim.4700230509/abstract?
systemMessage=There+will+be+a+release+of+Wiley+Online+Library+scheduled+for+Saturday+27th+Nov
ember+2010.+Access+to+the+website+will+be+disrupted+as+follows%
3A+New+York+0630+EDT+to+0830+EDT%3B+London+1130+GMT+to+1330+GMT%
3B+Singapore+1930+SGT+to+2130+SGT

SLUDGE DISPOSAL: Sanitary Landfill - Open Dump - Superfund Site (1993)
http://thewatchers.us/New-Mexico-paper.html

The changing epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infections and the emergence of
streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. (1993)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8418346

Virulence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli 091:H21 Clinical Isolates in an Orally Infected Mouse
Model (1993), http://thewatchers.us/EPA/6/1993-coli-091.pdf

1994
Adhesion and Its Role in the Virulence of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (1994)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC358315/pdf/cmr00031-0020.pdf

Broad host range gene transfer: plasmids and conjugative transposons (1994)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1574-6941.1994.tb00225.x/abstract

Biofilms, the Customized Microniche (1994),
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC205331/pdf/jbacter00026-0013.pdf

Candidates for the Rest of the Story (1994) (EPA's Public Relations Campaign Against Sludge Victims)
http://deadlydeceit.com/EPA-PR.html

EXEMPTION FOR ESCHERICHIA COLI K-12 (1994)  ---Part 725.420 --- E. coli K-12 is a debilitated
organism not adapted for survival in the human gut or in the environment. microorganims used in
fermentation processes are usually debilitated, either intentionally or through acclimation to industrial
fermentation, http://thewatchers.us/EPA/15/K12-decision.pdf

Helicobacter pullorurn sp. nov. - genotype and phenotype of a new species isolated from
poultry and from human patients with gastroenteritis (1994)
http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/140/12/3441.pdf

Hospital-acquired infections: Diseases with increasingly limited therapies (1994)
http://www.pnas.org/content/91/7/2420.full.pdf

Investigations into Biofouling Phenomena in Fine Pore Aeration Devises (EPA) (1994)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1/1994-biofilm-aeration-devices.pdf

Luminescence-based detection of activity of starved and viable but nonculturable bacteria.(1994)
http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/60/4/1308

Metabolic Activity of Pathogenic Bacteria during Semicontinuous Anaerobic Digestion (1994)
http://thewatchers.us/pathogens/3647-bacteria-growth.pdf

MICROBIAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSTING PROCESSES (1994)
http://woodsend.org/pdf-files/microbia.pdf

PHYSIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETICS OF VIABLE BUT NON-CULTURABLE
MICROORGANISMS (1994), http://www.isb.vt.edu/brarg/brasym94/chowd.htm

Reactive Arthritis Induced by Clostridium difficile (1994)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1022330/

South Africans gave the U.S. the Soviet-developed flesh-eating bacteria, necrotizing fasciitis, as well as
the antidote.(1994), http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cpc-pubs/southafrica.pdf

The Specific Activities of Shiga-Like Toxin Type II (SLT-II) and SLT-II-Related Toxins of
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Differ When Measured by Vero Cell Cytotoxicity but Not by Mouse
Lethality (1994)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC186149/pdf/iai00002-0305.pdf

Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance Genes between Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria (1994)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC284573/pdf/aac00371-0003.pdf

Transfer of Multiple Drug Resistance Plasmids between Bacteria of Diverse Origins in Natural
Microenvironments (1994), http://aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/60/11/4015.pdf

Trojan Horses of the microbial world : protozoa and the survival of bacterial pathogens in the
environment (1994), http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/140/6/1253.pdf

1995
A Global Decline in Microbiological Safety of Water: A Call for Action (1995)
http://thewatchers.us/PDF_files/waterquality-1995-ASM.pdf

MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
PLANT AT “KREMIKOVTZI” HOLDING (1995), http://www.nbimcc.org/JCC/1995/I3.pdf

Need for vaccination of sewer workers against leptospirosis and hepatitis A. (1995)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1128284/

Pathogenesis of Hemorrhage-Induced Bacteria/Endotoxin Translocation in Rats (1995)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1234590/pdf/annsurg00050-0092.pdf

Salmonella contamination of recycled effluent of treated sewage and urban waste water (1995)
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3642080

Toxic Sludge is Good for You. (1995)
http://www.prwatch.org/tsigfy.html
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3579911499802972602#

Use of Bioluminescence To Model the Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella typhimurium in the Presence of
a Competitive Microflora (1995)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/13/1995-thermotolerant-bacteria.pdf

1996
A cluster of Cancer Deaths among wastewater treatment workers (1996)
http://www.jstor.org/pss/3581650

Acinetobacter spp. as Nosocomial Pathogens: Microbiological, Clinical, and Epidemiological Features
(1996), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC172888/pdf/090148.pdf

Arthritis From Foodborne Bacteria? (1996)
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/oct96/arthrits1096.htm

Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation
of sewage disposal.(1996) (bacteria increased over a year)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC167948/

Emergence of high rates of antimicrobial resistance among viridans group streptococci in the United
States.(1996), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC163225/

Emerging Foodborne Pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a Model of Entry of a New Pathogen into
the Food Supply of the Developed World (1996)
http://epirev.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/18/1/29.pdf

Food Safety -- Information on Foodborne Illness (GAO) (1996)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/2/1996-GAO-foodborne.pdf

Frequently Asked Questions & Answers about Wastewater and Biosolids Worker Health & Safety (1995)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/14/Worker-health.pdf

Hospital Outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae Resistant to Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporins and b-
Lactam–b-Lactamase Inhibitor Combinations by Hyperproduction of SHV-5 b-Lactamase (1996)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC228798/pdf/340358.pdf

In Vivo Selection of Porin-Deficient Mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae with Increased Resistance to
Cefoxitin and Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins (1996)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC163113/pdf/400342.pdf

Microbial Pathogenesis in Cystic Fibrosis: Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia
(1996), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC239456/pdf/600539.pdf

Pathogen Risk Assessment Methodology for Municipal Sewage Sludge Landfilling and Surface Disposal
(EPA) (1996), http://www.p2pays.org/ref/07/06249.pdf

Reactive arthritis induced by pseudomonas aeruginosa (1996)http://www.springerlink.
com/content/k50852386h7xqw64/

Reactive arthritis induced by tonsillitis. (1996)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9082784

Use of Reclaimed Water and Sludge in Food Crop Production, Committee on the Use of Treated
Municipal Wastewater Effluents and Sludge in the Production of Crops for Human Consumption, National
Research Council (1996),
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/6/1996-NRC-sludge-food-use.pdf
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/5175.html

Review of National Academy of Science's (NAS) 1996 literary review report by
its National Research Council (NRC) Committee : "Use of Reclaimed Water and Sludge in Food Crop
Production" (1996), http://deadlydeceit.com/NAS-Review.html

Susceptibility of oral bacterial biofilms [plaque] to antimicrobial agents (1996),
http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/44/2/79.pdf

Triggers for microbial aggregation [biofilm] in activated sludge? (1996),
http://www.springerlink.com/content/4rxncmagj3y9dwmr/fulltext.pdf

Use of Green Fluorescent Protein To Monitor Survival of Genetically Engineered Bacteria in Aquatic
Environments (1996), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC168148/pdf/623486.pdf

1997
A Cloned Pathogenicity Island from entropathogenic Escherichia coli confers the attaching and effacing
phenotype on E. coli K-12 (1997), http://thewatchers.us/EPA/13/1997-K-12-AE-island.pdf

Association of Multiple-Antibiotic-Resistance Profiles with Point and Nonpoint Sources of Escherichia coli
in Apalachicola Bay (1997), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC168557/pdf/632607.pdf

Are There Any Health Concerns With Handling Biosolids? (Water Environment Association of Ontario)
(1997), http://thewatchers.us/environment/HandlingBiosolids.pdf

ATTACHMENT I--FINAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ESCHERICHIA COLI K-12 DERIVATIVES (1997), The
strain E. coli K-12 is a debilitated strain which does not normally colonize the human intestine. It has also
been shown to survive poorly in the environment, has a history of safe commercial use, and is not known
to have adverse effects on microorganisms or plants.
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/15/1997-K12-risk.pdf

Bacterial Gene Swapping in Nature (1997)
http://www.genethik.de/gene_swapping.htm

Chronic Sequelae of Foodborne Disease (1997)
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol3no4/lindsay.htm

Cryptosporidiosis-Associated Mortality Following a Massive Waterbome Outbreak in Milwaukee,
Wisconsin (1997), http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/87/12/2032.pdf

Deadly Conformations: Protein Misfolding in Prion Disease (1997)
http://www.mad-cow.org/misfolding_review.html

Determination of Statement of Principles concerning EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC ALVEOLITIS, Veterans’
Entitlements Act 1986, http://thewatchers.us/EPA/5/1997-australia.pdf

Enterobacter spp.: Pathogens Poised To Flourish at the Turn of the Century (1997)
http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/reprint/10/2/220.pdf

Expression of a gene encoding a 16.9-kDa heat-shock protein, Oshsp16.9, in Escherichia coli enhances
thermotolerance (1997), http://thewatchers.us/pathogens/10967heatshocktolerants.pdf

Health Hazard Manual: Wastewater Treatment Plant and Sewer Workers (Cornell) (1997)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/15/1997-health-sewage.pdf

Highly Variable Mutation Rates in Commensal and Pathogenic Escherichia coli (1997)
http://www.imbb.forth.gr/people/aeconomou/microbiology/s-e-papers/e-papers/e.coli_mutation_rates.pdf

Isolation of Vero cytoxin-producing Escherichia 0157 from wild birds. (1997)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/6/1997-0157-birds.pdf

Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Escherichia coli from a Tropical Rain Forest Stream in Puerto Rico (1997)
http://esd.lbl.gov/files/about/staff/terryhazen/1997Carrasco_etal_Carib_J_Sci_33_191.pdf

Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms six months after bacterial gastroenteritis and risk factors for
development of the irritable bowel syndrome: postal survey of patients (1997)
http://www.bmj.com/content/314/7083/779.full

Regrowth of faecal coliforms and salmonellae in stored biosolids and soil amended with
biosolids (1997), http://www.iwaponline.com/wst/03511/wst035110269.htm

Resuscitation of Vibrio vulnificus from the Viable but Nonculturable State (1997)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1389128/pdf/hw1002.pdf

SURVIVAL, PERSISTENCE, TRANSFER An update on current knowledge on GMOs and the fate of their
recombinant DNA (1997), http://thewatchers.us/EPA/12/Survival-transfer-GMO-DNA.pdf

1998
A Novel Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Mice Deficient for the Multiple Drug Resistance Gene,
mdr1a, Spontaneously Develop Colitis (1998), http://www.jimmunol.org/cgi/content/full/161/10/5733

Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (1998)
http://www.ecmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/159/9/1129.pdf

Antibiotic Resistance in Acinetobacter spp. Isolated from Sewers Receiving Waste Effluent from a
Hospital and a Pharmaceutical Plant (1998),
http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/full/64/9/3499

Association of Multiple-Antibiotic-Resistance Profiles with Point and Nonpoint Sources of Escherichia coli
in Apalachicola Bay (1997), http://thewatchers.us/EPA/12/1997-antibio-apalachicola-bay.pdf

“Black holes” and bacterial pathogenicity: A large genomic deletion that enhances the virulence of
Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (1998)++
Expression of a gene encoding a 16.9-kDa heat-shock protein, Oshsp16.9, in Escherichia coli enhances
thermotolerance (1997), http://www.pnas.org/content/94/20/10967.full.pdf

Characterization of the Starvation-Survival Response of Staphylococcus aureus (1998)
http://jb.asm.org/cgi/reprint/180/7/1750

Class I integrons in Gram-negative isolates from different European hospitals and association with
decreased susceptibility to multiple antibiotic compounds ((1998),
http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/42/6/689.full.pdf

Deadly Deceit: OUR CHILDREN AT RISK FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE/BIOSOLIDS (1998)
http://deadlydeceit.com/DD-Title.html

Developmental neurotoxicology of endocrine disruptors and pesticides: identification of
information gaps and research needs. (EPA) (1998)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1533073/pdf/envhper00538-0037.pdf

Ecology of Increasing Disease Population growth and environmental degradation (1998)
http://dieoff.org/page165.htm

Effects of Starvation on Physiological Activity and Chlorine Disinfection Resistance in Escherichia coli
O157:H7 (1998), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC90905/

EMERGENCE OF MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROTYPE
TYPHIMURIUM DT104 INFECTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES (1998),
http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM199805073381901

Enterococcus faecalis Gene Transfer under Natural Conditions in Municipal Sewage Water Treatment
Plants (1998), http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/full/64/2/626
Farm Soil Test Report  -- Comparison of Fecal Coliform levels vs Salmonella - E. coli - Strep (1998)
http://thewatchers.us/pathogens/test-comparison.html

EPA Stakeholder Meetings on Hazardous Waste Derived Fertilizers (1998)
http://yosemite.epa.gov/R10/OWCM.NSF/0/f352cc5a8cfc3f6e88256770007d1686?OpenDocument

Comparison of Selected U.S. Fertilizer Metal Level Standards
http://www.afpc.net/US%20Stds%2004.pdf

Interaction of Mycobacterium avium with Environmental Amoebae Enhances Virulence (1997)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC175536/pdf/653759.pdf

Invasive group A streptococcal disease in metropolitan Atlanta: a population-based assessment. (1997)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9675469

Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines: the scientific argument (1998)
http://www.bvsde.paho.org/bvsacd/cd25/microbial.pdf

Molecular Evolution of a Pathogenicity Island from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (1998)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC108423/

Multiple sources of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlots and dairy farms in the Northwestern USA (1998)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/6/E-coli-animals.pdf

Nitrate in Drinking Water (1998)
http://extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPub.aspx?P=WQ103

Outer Membrane Profiles of Clonally Related Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Clinical Samples and
Activities of Cephalosporins and Carbapenems (1998)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC105658/

Role of Infection as a Risk Factor for Atherosclerosis, Myocardial Infarction, and Stroke (1998)
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/514570

Soil Test Report Comparison - Fecal Coliform vs Salmonella - E. coli - Strep survival (1998) (runoff from
municipal sludge farm)
http://thewatchers.us/pathogens/test-comparison.html

Survival of Coliforms and Bacterial Pathogens within Protozoa during Chlorination (1998)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC204422/pdf/aem00117-0149.pdf

Starvation recovery of Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 (1998)
http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/144/7/1755.pdf

The Challenge of Antibiotic Resistance (1998),
http://eebweb.arizona.edu/courses/ecol409_509/levy.pdf

1999
Antimicrobial resistance patterns in urinary isolates from nursing home residents. Fifteen years of data
reviewed (1999), http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/44/1/113.full

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from vegetables. (1999)
http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/4/503.full

Bacterial Growth State Distinguished by Single-Cell Protein Profiling: Does Chlorination Kill Coliforms in
Municipal Effluent? (1999),
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC99757/

Bacteria in Sludge that generate Hydrogen Sulfide (rotten egg odor)
http://thewatchers.us/odors/bacteria.html

Bacterial Toxins: Friends or Foes? (1999)
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no2/schmitt.htm

Changes in Antimicrobial Resistance among Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from
Humans and Cattle in the Northwestern United States, 1982–1997 (1999)
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no6/pdf/davis.pdf

Comparison and Recovery of Escherichia coli and Thermotolerant Coliforms in
Water with a Chromogenic Medium Incubated at 41 and 44.5°C (1990)
http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/full/65/8/3746

Distibution of viable but non-culturable bacteria in wastewater treatment systems. (1999)
http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/199919/000019991999A0591504.php

Evaluating Microbial Pathogens in Reservoirs (1999) (Corps of Engineers list of pathogens that may be
in sewage sludge),
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:HZdxwkfLwLMJ:el.erdc.usace.army.
mil/elpubs/pdf/wqtnpd03.pdf+Naegleria+fowleri,+sewage+sludge&hl=en&ie=UTF-8

Fate of Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts, and microbiol indicators during wastewater treatment
and anaerobic sludge digestion (1999),
http://thewatchers.us/environment/CanJMicrobiol-Sewagetreatment.pdf

Free-living Amoebae Protecting Legionella in Water: The Tip of an Iceberg? (1999)
http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00365549950163833

Gene Transfer in the Gastrointestinal Tract (1999)
http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/full/65/11/5139

Health effects among workers in sewage treatment plants (1999)
http://oem.bmj.com/content/56/5/354.abstract

Increased risk of irritable bowel syndrome after bacterial gastroenteritis: cohort study (1999)
http://www.bmj.com/content/318/7183/565.full

Incidence and Characterization of Integrons, Genetic Elements Mediating Multiple-Drug Resistance, in
Avian Escherichia coli (1999), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/ppmc/articles/PMC89589/

Introduction to Bacteria (1999),
http://thewatchers.us/pathogens/introductiontobacteria-1.pdf

lntracellular survival and saprophytic growth of isolates from the Burkholderia cepacia complex in free-
living amoebae (1999), http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/145/7/1509.pdf

Invasion of Human Coronary Artery Cells by Periodontal Pathogens (1999)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC96956/

Legionella: Human Health Criteria Document (EPA) 822-R-99-001 (1999)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1/1999-legionella-water-systems.pdf

Location and Survival of Leaf-Associated Bacteria in Relation to Pathogenicity and Potential for Growth
within the Leaf (1999), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC91203/

Mycobacteria: Health Advisory (EPA) 822-B-01-007 (1999)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1/1999-mycobacteria-health-advisory.pdf

Neurotoxicity from Municipal Sewage Sludge, (1999)
http://www.expertlaw.com/library/toxicology/sewage_sludge.html

Nomenclature for Aerobic and Facultative Bacteria (1999),
http://thewatchers.us/PDF/Facultative-bacteria.pdf

ODOR.CAUSING GASES GENERATED BY SLUDGE (1999)
http://thewatchers.us/odors/SVDr.DavidLewis.pdf

Prevalence of  Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Raw and Treated Municipal Sewage (1999), PR
study for thermotolerant 0157 -- 0157 is not thermotolerant -- Unknown strains of E. coli were found in
82% of the samples.   coliforms are referred to as heterotrophic (energy from carbon) bacteria -- .
http://thewatchers.us/pathogens/3466-E-coli.pdf

Public health aspects connected to the use of sludge on land (1999)
http://www.euro-case.org/publications/water/Martens.pdf

QUANTIFICATION OF BIOFILMS IN MULTI-SPECTRAL DIGITAL VOLUMES FROM CONFOCAL LASER-
SCANNING MICROSCOPES (1999). "Populations of bacteria in sludge flocs and biofilm"
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.33.8916&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Sludge Magic at the EPA (1999),
http://www.deadlydeceit.com/SludgeMagic.html

Spread of Amikacin Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated in Spain Due to an Epidemic
Strain (1999), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC84544/

The global epidemiology of resistance to ciprofloxacin and the changing nature of antibiotic resistance: a
10 year perspective (1999),
http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/suppl_1/31.full.pdf

The Life and Times of the Enterococcus (1999)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC358140/pdf/cmr00046-0058.pdf

Use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture: potential for public health impact (CDC) (1999),
http://www.thenaa.net/downloads/CDC_Memo_to_the_Record.pdf