1950--1969 Studies That Affect Your Health Through Contaminated Food and Water From Sewage
(101) 12/4/2010

Highlights
This period saw the development of genetic engineering capabilities. The medical profession discovered even
more serious infections caused by bacteria even as the Public Health Service was trying to decide the
significance of coliform contamination in water and food using indole; methyl red;  Voges-Proskauer, and  
citrate in laboratory growth media to establish the family Entrobacteriaceae which cause about 50% of
hospital acquired infections. There was an explosive expansion of antibiotic resistant bacteria in Japan which
was ignored by the health agencies of other countries even as they reported on the phenomenon.

1950
Bacteria coli an Infantile Gastro-enteritis -- Cigarettes and Cancer  (letters) (1950)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/11/1950-B-coli-tobacco.html

MUTANTS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI REQUIRING METHIONINE OR VITAMIN B12 (1950)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC385836/

Studies on nutritionally deficient bacterial mutants isolated by means of penicillin.(1950)
http://www.springerlink.com/content/b244771247492321/fulltext.pdf

1951
RECOMBINATION ANALYSIS OF BACTERIAL HEREDITY (1951)
http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/BB/A/B/F/F/_/bbabff.ocr

STREPTOMYCIN RESISTANCE: A GENETICALLY RECESSIVE MUTATION (1951)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC386043/

Survival of Selected Enteric Organisms in Various Types of Soil (1951)
http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/41/1/38.pdf

The Anaerogenic Effect of Nitrates and Nitrites on Gram-Negative Enteric Bacteria (1951)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1525593/pdf/amjphnation00425-0068.pdf

THE SURVIVAL OF BACTERIA DURING AND AFTER DRYING (1951)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2235025/pdf/jhyg00168-0103.pdf

1952
GENETIC EXCHANGE IN SALMONELLA (1952)
http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/BB/A/B/F/L/_/bbabfl.pdf

SALMONELLA DUBLIN AS A CAUSE OF CHRONIC OSTEOMYELITIS: [bone infection] (1952)
http://web.jbjs.org.uk/cgi/reprint/34-B/1/80.pdf

Sex Compatibility in Escherichia Coli (1952)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1209583/

The Status of Serologic Typing in the Family Enterobacteriaceae -(cdc) (1952)
http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/42/6/665

1953
Hydrogen Sulphide Production by Bacteria (1953)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/13/1953-H2S-bacteria.pdf

STUDIES OF MUTABILITY IN NUTRITIONALLY DEFICIENT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI (1953),
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC169454/pdf/jbacter00013-0045.pdf

The Integration of Research on the Nutrition and .Metabolism of Micro -organisms The Inaugural Marjory
Stephenson Memorial Lecture (1953). (viable bacteria with no growth (VBNC))
http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/9/2/151.pdf

1954
Bone Abscess caused  by E. coli (1954)
http://www.jbjs.org.uk/cgi/reprint/36-B/3/436.pdf

MENDELIAN AND NON-MENDELIAN INHERITANCE OF STREPTOMYCIN RESISTANCE IN
CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDI (1954),
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC534135/pdf/pnas00732-0096.pdf

THE IDENTIFICATION OF FAECAL B. COLI IN WATER AND MILK SUPPLIES (1954)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13168644

1955
CROSS-INFECTION OF WOUNDS WITH ANTIBIOTICRESISTANT ORGANISMS (1955)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2061717/pdf/brmedj03335-0011.pdf

Genetic Recombination in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1955)
http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/13/3/572.pdf

THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON X-RAY INDUCED MUTABILITY IN ESCHERICHIA COLI(1955)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC357629/

ON THE MECHANISM OF DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE TO STREPTOMYCIN IN MICROCOCCUS
PYOGENES VAR. AUREUS (1955),
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC357721/pdf/jbacter00538-0148.pdf

THE RELATIONSHIP OF BACTERIOPHAGE TO ANTIGENIC CHANGES IN GROUP E SALMONELLAS
(1955), http://jb.asm.org/cgi/reprint/69/5/571

The Use of Serology in the Classification of Micro -organisms (1955)
http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/12/2/367.pdf

1956
Conjugation and Genetic Recombination in Escherichia coli K-12 (1956)
http://symposium.cshlp.org/content/21/141.extract

LINEAR INHERITANCE IN TRANSDUCTIONAL CLONES (1956)
http://www.genetics.org/cgi/reprint/41/6/845.pdf

SYMPOSIUM ON ENTEROBACTERIACEAE [coliform] OF MEDICAL SIGNIFICANCE: ISOLATION,
IDENTIFICATION, AND PATHOGENIC POTENTIALITIES' (1956) "Dr. Hardy emphasized the urgent need for
additional knowledge on these diseases, which continue to be the chief cause of death in most areas of the
world."
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/13/1956-entrolsym.pdf

Time, Temperature, and Protein Synthesis: A Study of Ultraviolet-Induced Mutation in Bacteria (1956)
http://symposium.cshlp.org/content/21/123.extract

1957
CHRONIC SUBPHRENIC ABSCESS DUE TO SALMONELLA ORANIENBURG INFECTION: CASE REPORT
AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE* (1957)
http://www.annals.org/content/46/1/169.extract

HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SHIGELLA' (1957)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/15/1957-e-coli-shig-recomb.pdf

The Coliform [Enterobacteriaceae] Group, I. The Boric Acid Lactose Broth Reaction of Coliform IMViC
Types, (Public Health Service) (1957), http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1957-coliform.pdf

The Kinetics of the Mating Process in Escherichia coli (1957)
http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/16/1/97.pdf

The Nature of the Endergonic Processes in Conjugation in Escherichia coli K-12 (1957)
http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/16/1/136.pdf

The Role of the Krebs Cycle in Conjugation in Escherichia coli K-12 (1957)
http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/16/1/120.pdf

1958
ALTERATIONS IN THE BLOOD COAGULATION SYSTEM INDUCED BY BACTERIAL ENDOTOXINS, (1958)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2136681/pdf/369.pdf

Lysis Resulting from Metabolic Disturbance (1958) "In an unsuitable medium, growth may continue for a
time or it may stop more or less abruptly; further, in each case the cells of the culture may remain in a state of
suspended animation or they may rapidly lyse."
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/13/1958-lysis-compounds.pdf

The Coliform Group II (1958)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1057428/pdf/applmicro00319-0063.pdf

1959
CHARACTERISTICS OF A HIGH FREQUENCY OF RECOMBINATION (HFR) STRAIN OF SALMONELLA
TYPHOSA COMPATIBLE WITH SALMONELLA, SHIGELLA, AND ESCHERICHIA SPECIES (1959)
http://www.pnas.org/content/45/12/1752.full.pdf

Genetic Recombination Between Escherichia Coli and Salmonella Typhimurium (1959)
http://www.pnas.org/content/45/7/976.full.pdf

1960
DIPLOID HETEROZYGOUS HYBRIDS FROM MATINGS BETWEEN ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SALMONELLA
TYPHOSA (1960),
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2137222/

PHAGOCYTOSIS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO ENCAPSULATED BACTERIA (1960)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC441036/?page=1

1961
EFFECT OF TYPHOID O ANTIGEN (ENDOTOXIN) ON THE VIRULENCE OF AN ODEFICIENT
VARIANT OF SALMONELLA TYPHOSA (1961), http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/73/2/224.extract

EPISOME-MEDIATED TRANSFER OF DRUG RESISTANCE IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE (1961)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC279073/pdf/jbacter00480-0021.pdf

EXPERIMENTAL GENETIC RECOMBINATION IN VIVO BETWEEN ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SALMONELLA
TYPHIMURIUM (1961), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2137439/

Rapid Presumptive Identification  of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli if Faecal Smears by Means of
Fluorescent Antibody.  (1961), http://thewatchers.us/EPA/6/1961-bulletin_1961_25-2_153-158.pdf

Viricidal Efficiency of Disinfectants in Water  (Public Health Service) (1961)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/3/1961-virus-disinfection.pdf

1962
A METHOD FOR SELECTING RADIATION-SENSITIVE MUTANTS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI (1962)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/13/1962-radiation-resistnt-E.coli.pdf

COMBINATION OF TWO TYPES OF TRANSMISSIBLE DRUG-RESISTANCE FACTORS IN A HOST
BACTERIUM (1962), http://jb.asm.org/cgi/reprint/84/1/9.pdf

CONJUGAL FERTILITY ASSOCIATED WITH RESISTANCE FACTOR R IN ESCHERICHIA COLI (1962)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC277988/pdf/jbacter00463-0048.pdf

ESTIMATION OF ELASTOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA (1962)
(severe elastolysis of the arterial elastic laminae -- necrotizing vasculitis)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC278307/pdf/jbacter00457-0238.pdf

GENETIC HOMOLOGY BETWEEN ESCHERICHIA COLI K-12 AND SALMONELLA (1962)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC278063/

IN VITRO STUDIES OF MAMMALIAN SOMATIC CELL VARIATION II. ISOImmune CYTOTOXlCITY WITH A
CULTURED Mouse LYMPHOMA AND SELECTION OF RESISTANT VARIANTS*, (1962)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2137607/pdf/267.pdf

RELEASE OF GENETIC TRANSFORMING AGENT FROM PNEUMOCOCCAL CULTURES DURING
GROWTH AND DISINTEGRATION* (1962),
http://jem.rupress.org/content/116/4/491.full.pdf

The Survival of Starved Bacteria (1962) (regrowth)
http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/29/2/233.pdf

TRANSMISSION OF A RESISTANCE TRANSFER FACTOR FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI TO TWO SPECIES OF
PASTEURELLA (U.S. Army) (1962),
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC278306/pdf/jbacter00457-0237.pdf

Transmissible Drug Resistance in an Epidemic Strain of Salmonella typhimurium
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2134509/pdf/jhyg00125-0023.pdf

1963
DIAGNOSIS OF TOXIC GASTRO-ENTERITIS DUE TO PATHOGENIC COLIBACILLI IN INFANTS BY MEANS OF
IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE,(1963)
http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=AD834641&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf

DRUG RESISTANCE OF ENTERIC BACTERIA II. TRANSDUCTION OF TRANSMISSIBLE
DRUG-RESISTANCE (R) FACTORS WITH PHAGE EPSILON1 (1963)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC283650/pdf/jbacter00452-0216.pdf

INFECTIVE HEREDITY OF MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE IN BACTERIA
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/2/1963-infective-drug-resistance.pdf

SANITARY SIGNIFICANCE OF COLIFORM AND FECAL COLIFORM ORGANISMS IN SURFACE WATER
(Public Health Service) (1963),
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1963-coliform.pdf

Staphylococcal Growth and Enterotoxin Production in Meat (1963),
http://thewatchers.us/Invasivepathogens/498Staphresearchattempt.pdf

1964
Comparison of the Recovery of Escherichia coli from Frozen Foods and Nutmeats by Confirmatory
Incubation in EC Medium at 44.5 and 45.5 C (1964), http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1963-EC-medium.pdf

DRUG RESISTANCE OF ENTERIC BACTERIA III. ACQUISITION OF TRANSFERABILITY OF
NONTRANSMISSIBLE R(TC) FACTOR IN COOPERATION WITH F FACTOR AND FORMATION OF FR(TC)
(1964), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC277402/pdf/jbacter00439-0087.pdf

EFFECT OF DRUG-RESISTANCE FACTOR R ON THE F PROPERTIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI (1964)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC277014/pdf/jbacter00442-0119.pdf

EPISOME-MEDIATED TRANSFER OF DRUG RESISTANCE IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE (1964)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC314833/pdf/jbacter00593-0128.pdf

GENETIC RECOMBINATION BETWEEN THE RESISTANCE TRANSFER FACTOR AND THE
CHROMOSOME OF ESCHERICHIA COLI (NASA) (1964),
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC277208/pdf/jbacter00446-0107.pdf

Sanitary Significants of coliform and fecal coliform (1964)
http://www.thewatchers.us/EPA/1963-coliform.pdf

TRANSFER OF DRUG RESISTANCE BETWEEN ENTERIC BACTERIA INDUCED IN THE MOUSE
INTESTINE (1964), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC277303/pdf/jbacter00437-0072.pdf

1965
Boundary Between Bacterial Mesophilism and Thermophilism (U.S.Army) (1965)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC315593/pdf/jbacter00424-0076.pdf

Drug Resistance of Enteric Bacteria V. High Frequency of Transduction of R Factors with Bacteriophage
Epsilon (1965), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC315799/

Escherichia coli and Neonatal Disease of Calves (1965)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC441261/pdf/bactrev00144-0087.pdf

The Isolation of Enterobacteriaceae Processing the Property of Transmissible Multuple-Drug Resistance
(1965),
http://archive.samj.org.za/1965%20VOL%20XXXIX%20Jul-Dec/Articles/10%20October/4.5%20THE%20ISOL
ATION%20OF%20ENTEROBACTERIACEAE%20POSSESSING%20THE%20PROPERTY%20OF%20TRANS
MISSIBLE%20MULTIPLE-DRUG%20RE.pdf

1966
Drug Resistance of Enteric Bacteria VI. Introduction of Bacteriophage P1CM into Salmonella typhi and
Formation of P1dCM and F-CM Elements (1966), http://jb.asm.org/cgi/content/short/91/5/1787

Gene Recombination and Segregation of Resistance Factor R in Escherichia coli (1966)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC315909/pdf/jbacter00419-0087.pdf

Lethal Gram-Negative Bacterial Superinfection in Guinea Pigs Given Bacitracin -- 10
million fold increase (1966)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC276268/pdf/jbacter00414-0248.pdf

Loss and Repair of Conjugal Fertility and Infectivity of the Resistance Factor and Sex Factor in Escherichia
coli (1966), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC316028/

Salmonella with Transferable Drug Resistance (1966)
http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM196609222751201

1967
Drug Resistance of Enteric Bacteria IX. Distribution of R Factors in Gram-negative Bacteria from Clinical
Sources (1967), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC276592/

Drug Resistance of Enteric Bacteria VIII. Chromosomal Location of Nontransferable R Factor in
Escherichia coli (1967), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC276591/pdf/jbacter00410-0070.pdf

Drug Resistance of Enteric Bacteria XIII. Distribution of R Factors in Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from
Livestock (1967), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC276790/

Effect of Food Intake on Growth and Survival of Salmonellas and Escherichia coli in the Bovine Rumen
(1967), http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/46/1/125.pdf

IN VIVO TRANSMISSION OF DRUG RESISTANCE FACTORS BETWEEN STRAINS OF
STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS* (1967), http://jem.rupress.org/content/125/1/45.full.pdf

MULTIPLE TRANSMISSIBLE DRUG RESISTANCE IN AN OUTBREAK OF SHIGELLA FLEXNERI INFECTION
(1967), http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(67)90793-3/abstract

R Factor Infection of Escherichia coli Lyophilized in 1946 (1967)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC276944/pdf/jbacter00407-0295.pdf

1968
Infant diarrhoea due to Escherichia coli 091 K? H7 (1968)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/6/1968-coli091.pdf

Infectious Drug Resistance Among Clinically Isolated Escherichia coli (1968)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC315210/pdf/jbacter00589-0138.pdf

Isolation of Acinetobacter from Soil and Water
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/5/1968-acinetobacter.pdf

Plasmid-linked Resistance to Inorganic Salts in Staphylococcus aureus (1968)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC315091/pdf/jbacter00587-0169.pdf

R-Factors in Calcutta Strains of Vibrio cholerae and Members of the Enterobacteriaceae (1968)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2554595/pdf/bullwho00233-0127.pdf

R (Transmissible Drug-resistance) Factors in Salmonella typhimurium: Pattern of Transduction by Phage
P22 and Ultraviolet-protection Effect (1968), http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/53/1/109

The Incidence and Pattern of Microbial Infection at Freedmen's Hospital (1968)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2611461/pdf/jnma00521-0020.pdf

The Transmissible Nature of the Genetic Factor in Escherichia coli that Controls Enterotoxin Production
(1968), http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/52/3/319.pdf

1969
Drug Resistance and R Factors in the Bowel Bacteria of London Patients before and after Admission to
Hospital (1969), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1983307/pdf/brmedj02032-0031.pdf

Formation of Recombinants Between Nontransmissible Drug-Resistance Determinants and
Transfer Factors (1969),
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC249886/pdf/jbacter00393-0570.pdf

GASTROENTERITIS FOLLOWING INGESTION OF SEWAGE POLLUTED WATER: AN OUTBREAK AT A
LOGGING CAMP ON THE OLYMPIC PENINSULA (1969)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/6/1969-outbreak-washington.html

Incidence of Infectious Drug Resistance Among Lactose-Fermenting Bacteria Isolated from
Raw and Treated Sewage
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/2/1969-drug-resistance-sewage.pdf

R-factor Gene Expression in Gram-negative Bacteria (1969) (R-Factor transferred from Escherichia coli
K I2 to E. coli, Serratia marcescens, Alkdlescens sp. and Aerobacter demgenes)
http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/55/1/109.pdf

R Factors Improving Survival of Escherichia coli K-12 After Ultraviolet Irradiation (1969)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/15/1968-uv-improves-survival.pdf

Stable Coexistence of Three Resistance Factors (Ji-) in Salmonella panama and Escherichia coli K 12
(1969), http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/107.pdf

Transferable Drug Resistance Among Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Cases of Neonatal Diarrhea in
Calves and Piglets (1969)

Transferable Drug Resistance in Enterobacteria Isolated from Urban Infants (1969)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1983349/pdf/brmedj02032-0029.pdf