1882--1949 Studies That Affect Your Health Through Contaminated Food and Water From Sewage
(60) 12/4/2010

Highlights
This period saw the medical profession struggling with the discovery that E. coli, Klebsiella and other coli-
like-forms (coliforms) of gram negative bacteria were serious human pathogens that caused death to both
infants and their mothers as well as wound infections, blood infections, etc. With the discovery that E. coli
was thermotolerant and the only primary coliform that could grow at elevated temperatures it was chosen as
an indicator for fecal contamination in water. Public drinking cups were banned because they were found to
spread disease. It became the scientific assumption that only thermotolerant E. coli was from human fecal
material and other coliforms growing at the human body temperature was from environmental sources.
Antibiotic were developed and scientists discovered genes could be transferred between bacteria and
some were antibiotic resistant. E. coli K12 was isolated and cultured in the laboratory for research and
commercial applications as a nonpathogen. According to EPA over the past 90 years of cultivation it has
lost the ability to inhabit the human body and lost the capability to cause disease. Escherichia coli K12 and
the genetic derivatives of E. coli K-12 are what is meant when we are assured most E. coli are not
pathogens.

1882
The Sewage Gas Evil (NY Times, 1882)
http://thewatchers.us/odors/96858775-1-H2SNYTimes1882.pdf

1894
The Bacillus Coli Communis, (1894)
http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM189411221312104
http://chestofbooks.com/health/disease/Pathology-2/7-Bacillus-Coli-Communis.html

1898
THE BACILLUS CAPSULATUS (BACILLUS PNEUMONILE OF FRIEDLANDER?), WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE
TO ITS CONNECTION WITH ACUTE LOBAR PNEUMONIA. JOSEPH J. CURRY. (Assistant in Pathology, Harvard
Medical School.) (Abstract.) 1898   (Klebsiella)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2121798/pdf/jbsms00030-0016.pdf

1899
A contribution to the study of Bright's [kidney] disease with special reference to the etiological
relationship of the bacillus coli,  (1899)
http://www.archive.org/details/contributiontost00nich

1900
An Analytical Account Of Fifty-Seven Cases Of Puerperal Infection--31 deaths (1900)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2505713/pdf/brmedj08495-0009.pdf

A Manual Of Pathology (1900)
http://chestofbooks.com/health/disease/Pathology-2/

1903
Bacillus Coli Communis, (1903)
http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003316548

THE BEARING OF OUTBREAKS OF FOOD POISONING UPON THE ETIOLOGY OF EPIDEMIC
DIARRHOEA. (1903),
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2236062/pdf/jhyg00312-0073.pdf

The Pathogenicity of B. coli in Relation to the Bacteriological (1903)
www.jstor.org/stable/3858994

1905
The Bacillus Coli Communis as a Cause of Septicaemia (1905)
http://books.google.com/books?id=XWYCAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA770&lpg=PA770&dq=The+Bacillus+Coli+
Communis+as+a+Cause+of+Septicaemia&source=bl&ots=9ZaXEE9Rb7&sig=2tkYhUQefJwtbARh1wZIU
mQJpOA&hl=en&ei=nHjlTM7pGsL78Aaz8ZHEDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&v
ed=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20Bacillus%20Coli%20Communis%20as%20a%20Cause%
20of%20Septicaemia&f=false

1906
NOTES ON B. COLI IN DRINKING WATER. ATYPICAL FORMS FOUND IN THE SAME, AND SOME
OBSERVATIONS CONCERNING A PECULIAR " RED REACTION " WHEN NAOH IS ADDED TO THE
CULTURES. (1906),
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/13/1906-b-coli-test.pdf

ON THE CHEMISTRY OF BACILLUS COLI COMMUNIS. (1906)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/12/1906-chemistry-e-coli.pdf

ON GAS PRODUCTION BY FECAL BACTERIA GROWN ON SUGAR BOUILLON (1906)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/13/1906-fecal-gas-production.pdf

United States Supreme Court, MISSOURI V. ILLINOIS, 200 US 496, 1906,
http://ftp.resource.org/courts.gov/c/US/200/200.US.496.4.html

1907
The Public Drinking Cup (1907)
http://deadlydeceit.com/water/V07N05-105cup1906.pdf

1909
Colibacillosis (1909)
http://books.google.com/books?
id=BRQjAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=colibacillus+disease&source=bl&ots=gbtm-
IAPwo&sig=1IjFwa_YNYcEX22QLCOo5_JLV6M&hl=en&ei=DnOzTLqqDYLGlQe7qbCvCw&sa=X&
oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

1910
Attention paid to sanitary conditions as typhoid fever spreads,(1910)
http://www2.ljworld.com/news/2010/oct/07/100-years-ago-attention-paid-sanitary-conditions-t/

1911
CLASSIFICATION OF THE B. COLI GROUP. (1911)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/13/1911-classification-B-coli-group.pdf

UNLAWFUL TO DRINK FROM A PUBLIC CUP,(1911)
http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?
_r=1&res=9D00E5D71531E233A25752C0A9669D946096D6CF

1915
Acute Septic Meningitis Due to B. coli Following Skull Wound, (1915)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/15/1915-B-coli-mingitis.pdf

A STUDY OF THE PREVALENCE OF B. COLI IN SOME TROPICAL SURFACE WATERS, WITH
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SURFACE WATERS OF PANAMA AND SOME WATERS OF MEXICO.
(1915),
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/15/1915-B-coli-colonies.pdf

1919
THERMOPHILIC BACTERIA (1919), The maximum temperature for the pathogenic bacteria is about
45°C. Their optimum temperature is about 37.50C.
http://thewatchers.us/PDF/copy_of_301facultativethermophiles.pdf

1920
NOTES ON BACT. COLI AND BACT. AEROGENES (1920)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1353663/pdf/amjphealth00077-0037.pdf

1921--
Flies Travel Far (1921)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/15/1921-flies-travel.pdf

Manual of Surgery, Sixth Edition Revised (1921)
http://fliiby.com/file/249610/6wt4lxkmlp.html

NOTES ON BACT. COLI AND BACT. AEROGENES
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/2/1921--E-coli-Enterbactor.pdf

THE GROUP OF HYDROGEN SULPHIDE PRODUCING BACTERIA (1921)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/13/1921-H2S-Bacteria.pdf

1922
E. coli K-12 was originally isolated from a convalescent diphtheria patient in 1922 (Bachmann, 1972).
This is now a cultivated strain used in research and commercial application
(The strain E. coli K-12 is a debilitated strain which does not normally colonize the human intestine.)
(E. coli belongs to the taxonomic family known as Enterobacteriaceae)
http://epa.gov/biotech_rule/pubs/fra/fra004.htm

1925
THE ELECTROPHORETIC MIGRATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF VEGETABLE CELLS (1925)
http://jb.asm.org/cgi/reprint/11/5/367.pdf

1926
COLON BACTERIA AND STREPTOCOCCI AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE IN MILK (1926)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1286833/

1926
B. COLI AS AN INDEX OF FAECAL POLLUTION OF WATER SUPPLIES.(1926)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2167569/pdf/jhyg00274-0019.pdf

Chronic Urinary Tract Infections with B. coli communis (1926)
http://pmj.bmj.com/content/1/4/41.extract

THE FATE OF B. COLI AND B. AEROGENES IN SEWAGE PURIFICATION (1926)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC374946/pdf/jbacter00899-0057.pdf

1927
A SEARCH FOR PATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN SWIMMING POOLS (1927)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1321650/


1928
B. coli and menigitis (1928)
http://www.jstor.org/pss/25370025

The Eijkman Fermentation Test as an Aid in the Detection of Fecal Organisms in Water, THIRTIETH
ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF AMERICAN BACTERIOLOGISTS (1928),
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1928-E-coli.pdf

1929
Routine Use of a Modified Eijkman Medium in the Examination of Oysters, Crabmeat, and Other
Substances, (1929),
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/1929-ejikman.pdf

1930
BACILLUS COLI INFECTIONS* (1930)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/15/1930-e-coli-infections.pdf

IS THE EIJKMAN TEST AN AID IN THE DETECTION OF FECAL POLLUTION OF WATER?
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/5/1930-Eijkman-test.pdf

1931-
THE INTERPRETATION OF DIRECT DIFFERENTIAL COUNTS OF COLON-AEROGENES
ORGANISMS IN WELL WATERS'
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/2/1931-differential-counts-colon-aerogenes-wells.pdf

THE RELATIVE PERSISTENCE OF BACT. COLI AND BACT. AEROGENES IN NATURE
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/2/1931-presistence-E-coli-Enterbactor.pdf

1932
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF COLON BACTERIA IN MILK, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO STANDARDS
(1932),
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/13/1932-coli-aerogenes-Milk.pdf

1933
THE ESCHERICHIA-AEROBACTER GROUP OF BACTERIA IN DAIRY PRODUCTS (1933)
http://jds.fass.org/cgi/reprint/16/5/481.pdf

1934
MICROCOCCUS TETRAGENUS INFECTION: I. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE, REPORT OF A
NON-FATAL CASE WITH SEPTICEMIA, MENINGITIS AND ARTHRITIS, AND BACTERIOLOGIC
STUDIES (1934)
http://thewatchers.us/infections/MICROCOCCUS-TETRAGENUS-INFECTION.pdf

THE INCIDENCE AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HEMOLYTIC BACILLUS COLI IN
THE STOOLS OF HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS, (1934)
http://www.jci.org/articles/view/100599/pdf

1935
A Study of B. coli mutabile from an Outbreak of Diarrhea in the New-born*
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1559361/

Routine Use of a Modified Eijkman Medium in the Examination of Oysters, Crabmeat, and Other
Substances (1935),
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1558997/

1936
THE OCCURRENCE OF SALMONELLA, ORANIENBURG TYPE, IN AN INFECTION OF QUAIL (1936)
http://jb.asm.org/cgi/reprint/32/3/259.pdf

1937
Escherichia-Aerobacter Intermediates from Human Feces (1937)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1563268/pdf/amjphnation01049-0092.pdf

1939
COLIFORM BACTERIA (1939)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/13/1939-coliform-pathogens.pdf

Occurrence of Several Unusual Types of Salmonella in Human Infections (1939)
http://www.jstor.org/pss/30092087

1940
FUMINATING BACILLUS COLI SEPTICEMIA IN DIABETIC WOMEN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO
THE CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS, (1940)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242196/pdf/tacca00014-0088.pdf

1941
THE PATHOGENICITY OF THE BACTERIA OF APPENDICITIS PERITONITIS (1941)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1385802/pdf/annsurg00383-0167.pdf

1942-
THE ERWINIA-COLIFORM RELATIONSHIP
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/2/1942-erwinia-coliform-relationship.pdf

1944
Evaluation EC [Escherichia coli] Medium (1944)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1625092/pdf/amjphnation00659-0069.pdf

1946
DETECTION OF BIOCHEMICAL MUTANTS OF MICROORGANISMS (1946)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/15/1946-mutants.pdf

1947
GENE RECOMBINATION IN THE BACTERIUM ESCHERICHIA COLI (1947)
http://thewatchers.us/EPA/15/1947-gene-recomb.pdf

GENE RECOMBINATION AND LINKED SEGREGATIONS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI (1947)
http://www.genetics.org/cgi/reprint/32/5/505.pdf

1949
BIOCHEMICAL MUTANTS IN THE SMUT FUNGUS USTILAGO MAYDIS (1949)
http://www.genetics.org/cgi/reprint/34/5/607.pdf

COLIFORM INFECTION OF THE URINARY TRACT (1949)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1023247/pdf/jclinpath00007-0054.pdf

The Isolation of Biochemically Deficient Mutants of Bacteria by Means of Penicillin (1949)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1062948/