HUMAN PRIONS IN SEWERS AND SEWAGE SLUDGE
TO NED – HUMAN PRIONS IN PUBLIC SEWERS AND SEWAGE SLUDGE BIOSOLIDS

Ned – because this is an enormous subject, I am going to make some statements . . . . and if you
question or disbelieve these statements . . . let me know and I will go back  furnish what I have for  
backup data.    I am not a scientist . . . what I do is attempt to collect and correlate  information produced
by others

First of all, I assume you are being coy in not mentioning the ongoing EPA funded research by Trina
McMahon, et al, UW-Madison  re prions in sewage sludge.  (http://www.news.wisc.edu/releases/9840.
html)

The problem with the UW-Madison research – and your email – is that both  ignore the significant issue
of human prions being discharged to public sewers, which are reconcentrated by the wastewater
treatment process in BOTH Class A and Class B sewage sludge biosolids (hereinafter called "sludge").

Since there are site restrictions on Class B sludge, let's temporarily ignore the prions in that stuff (which
is topdressed and being ingested by grazing cows, cattle, livestock) and move on to Class A sludge –
which is being sold by the bag by WalMart, etal, to an unsuspecting public for use in home vegetable
gardens, and being spread on ballfields,, playgrounds and other places where children (and particularly
PICA kids) are likely to be exposed.

Where would human prions come from?  The CDC  publicly states that only one in a million people are
infected with CJD.   But if you go deeper into their files, you will find that  they acknowledge
3.4 people per million > age 50 are actually afflicted with CJD.


Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease affects both men and women worldwide usually between the ages of 50 to 75
years. The officially stated mortality rate is one to two deaths per one million population per year.
However, this figure appears to be an understatement as CJD is often misdiagnosed. In one study by
Yale University researchers 13% of Alzheimer patients were found upon autopsy to actually have CJD.  
(Dr. Laura Manuelidis, et al   http://www.cyber-dyne.com/~tom/Alzheimer_cjd.html#clinical  
A similar study performed at the University of Pittsburgh showed over 5% of Alzheimer's patients were
CJD victims
http://
www.zarcrom.com/users/alzheimers/odem/cjd1.html

An estimated 4.5 million Americans -- more than half of them women -- have Alzheimer's disease in the
United States.    http:/
/www.healthywomen.org/healthreport/pg2.html

5% CJD  X 4.5 million AD = 225,000 potential CJD victims .  . . . . .13% CJD X 4.5 AD = 585,000 potential
CJD victims

WHY DON'T WE KNOW HOW MANY CJD VICTIMS THERE ACTUALLY ARE?    BECAUSE NO-ONE
WANTS TO PAY FOR EITHER AUTOPSIES OR THE REPLACEMENT COST OF VALUABLE MEDICAL
INSTRUMENTS BEAUSE CJD IS SO INFECTIVE THAT THE INSTRUMENTS CANNOT BE STERILIZED
AND  MUST BE DESTROYED AFTER A CJD POSITIVE AUTOPSY.

HOW DO CJD PRIONS GET IN  CLASS A (and Class B)  SEWAGE SLUDGE COMPOST BIOSOLIDS?

Peer reviewed, published research indicates that prions are present in the urine and blood of CJD
infected humans:

Recent research by Reichl H, Balen A, Jansen CA. has found prions in urine and blood of both animals
and humans who are victims of TSEs (Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies – which would include
CJD).

 Thus, prions in  infected urine of TSE/CJD victims which is discharged to sewers, will be partitioned to
the sewage sludge by the wastewater treatment process.

  "Evidence is emerging that suggests that the protease-resistant isoform (PrP(sc)) of the normal cellular
prion protein (PrP(c)) can be detected in the blood and urine of animals and humans with transmissible
spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs)."

"Despite the paucity of evidence to date and its relevance to the infectious spread of TSEs, it is
important that robust measures are implemented to either remove or inactivate PrP(sc) in order to
minimize contamination."

1: Hum Reprod. 2002 Oct;17(10):2501-8.         Related Articles, Links


Prion transmission in blood and urine: what are the implications for recombinant and urinary-derived
gonadotrophins?

Reichl H, Balen A, Jansen CA.

http://
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?
cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12351519&dopt=Abstract



PRIONS IN URINE:
apparently Japanese scientists have also found prions in urine of sCJD victims . . . confirming the work of
Dr. Ruth Gabizon. . ..
http://www.priondata.org/data/A_Urinediagnostics.html

"The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that there is one case of sporadic CJD for
every 1 million people, but the incidence increases to five cases per million among those aged 65 and
older. "
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Sent: Friday, December 03, 2004 6:06 PM
Subject: PRIONS IN URINE - HAMSTERS, HUMAN AND CATTLE ADD TO PRIONS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE

SEAC/SCI/78/35 Miyazawa K, Shiga, Y, Matsuzaki, M. Takeda A, Itoyama, Y. The detection of a
protrease-resistant prion protein isoform in urine of Crutzfeld-Jakob Disease patients. Annals Neurol
2002; Suppl 1:S54

http://
www.priondata.org/data/A_Urinediagnostics.html
This was put as a poster at the 127th American Neurological Society conference and they seem to have
been able to repeat Ruth Gabizon's work using a slightly different technique.
Urine Test Promising for ID'ing Rare Brain Ailment
Reuters Health By Dana Frisch Thursday, October 24, 2002 http://www.nlm.nih.
gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_10029.html
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Japanese researchers have shown that a urine test seems to be a
promising way to confirm a diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), a rare, fatal neurological
disorder.
The researchers did not test the urine of patients with variant CJD--a form of the disease that has killed
more than 100 young adults, mostly in Britain--but such a test could be useful in diagnosing the disease.
Currently, a combination of tonsil biopsy and brain scans are used to confirm a diagnosis of variant CJD,
which is linked to the consumption of meat contaminated with "mad cow disease" or bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE). Symptoms of CJD include dementia and loss of muscle control.
In the new study, researchers tested the urine of patients with sporadic CJD, a form of CJD that occurs at
random in the population. The cause of sporadic CJD is not known but it is not linked to BSE. Patients
who develop sporadic CJD are typically elderly and have a different pattern of symptoms than those with
variant CJD, who tend to be in their teens or 20s.
In the latest study, scientists collected urine from 10 CJD patients, and patients with other neurological
disorders such as Alzheimer's, and analyzed the samples for the prions, the agents thought to cause the
disease. They detected the prion in the urine of CJD patients but only several months after symptoms of
the disease became apparent, according to Dr. Yusei Shiga, a study co-author from Tohoku University in
Sendai, Japan.
The test was negative in patients with other ailments, as well as those with an inherited form of CJD.
Shiga and his co-authors note that CJD in those patients typically "runs a long clinical course" and
generates few prions, making it harder to detect in a urine test.
Shiga said having a readily useable test for CJD is important for determining if a person does have the
disease to protect against transmission. In the future, he said, if a treatment is found, treating it early will
be helpful, and diagnosing it accurately and easily will be key.
The study was presented recently in New York at the American Neurological Association's annual
conference.
Dr. Ruth Gabizon of the Department of Neurology, Hadassah University Hospital in Jerusalem, Israel said
the results were promising.
"I was happy to see that the (inherited form of CJD) was negative, because we actually expect each prion
genetic disease to be a little different and to react differently," said Gabizon, who was leader of the team
that first detected the disease in urine in 2001. She is currently trying to develop a simple test kit for use
in any lab.
More research is needed to determine if such tests will work for variant CJD, she said. However, the tests
do seem to pick up BSE in cattle and scrapie, a similar disease, in sheep.
"All these infectious prion diseases seem to work OK (in the test), and that is why we think that variant
CJD is going to work like these, too," Gabizon told Reuters Health.
If the new study confirms Gabizon's work and extends the findings, it would be "significant," said Dr.
Ermias Belay, a medical epidemiologist with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
However, he cautioned that the latest results need to be published in full and reviewed by other
researchers before firm conclusions can be made.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that there is one case of sporadic CJD for
every 1 million people, but the incidence increases to five cases per million among those aged 65 and
older.
In addition to the urine test, other companies are working on blood tests that could be used to screen
blood for BSE and new variant CJD. At present, there is no such test. While the risk of contracting CJD
through donor blood is still theoretical, the US does not allow anyone who spent extensive time in the UK
or Europe to donate blood, for fear of contaminating the blood supply.
**********************************************************************************
http://
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?
cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12351519&dopt=Abstract


Prion transmission in blood and urine: what are the implications for recombinant and urinary-derived
gonadotrophins?

Reichl H, Balen A, Jansen CA.

Hamosan Life Science Services, Vienna Biocenter, Dr Bohr Gasse 7b, A-1030 Wien, Austria. herwig.
reichl@haemosan.com

Evidence is emerging that suggests that the protease-resistant isoform (PrP(sc)) of the normal cellular
prion protein (PrP(c)) can be detected in the blood and urine of animals and humans with transmissible
spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

http://
pubs.acs.org/cen/topstory/7929/7929notw7.html

PROBE FOR PRIONS
Diagnostic prions found in urine before disease symptoms appear
STU BORMAN
In a surprising and unexpected discovery, researchers in Israel have found a form of prion in urine that
can indicate the presence of disease caused by the mysterious protein even before symptoms appear.

While looking for other substances in hamster urine, she and her coworkers found an isoform (tissue-
specific form) of protease-resistant prion protein in the urine of prion-infected hamsters, and
subsequently also in the urine of cattle and humans with prion diseases. Few researchers had looked for
prions in urine before, Gabizon notes, because they generally believed prions would not pass through
the kidneys in substantially intact form.

Gabizon is hardly a newcomer to prion research. A decade ago, she worked for neurology professor
Stanley B. Prusiner of the University of California, San Francisco, who won the 1997 Nobel Prize in
Physiology or Medicine for discovering that prions cause TSEs.

http://
www.priondata.org/data/A_Urinediagnostics.html#Ruth%20Gabizon's
Ruth Gabizon's work
Ruth Gabizon is based in Jerusalem but used to work for Stan Prusiner in California. Her work has shown
that, as long as concentration steps can take place in advance, then Western blotting of the urine
sample from small quantities will show a prion-like compound present in the urine.
This compound was the prion protein, but in a changed form. It remained proteinase K resistant and
could be shown to be associated with the prion infection. She showed it to be present in the urine of
animals with scrapie and BSE early in the incubation period of the disease. The work has now become
part of a company in Israel.
*****************************************************************************

http://
www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/C100278200v1.pdf

A protease resistant PrP Isoform is Present in Urine of Animals and Humans affected with Prion Diseases
- Gideon M. Shaked, Yuval Shaked, Zehavit Kariva, Michele Halimi, Inbal Avraham and Ruth Gabizon,
Dept. of Neurology, the Agnes Ginges Center for Human Neurogenetics, Hadassah University Hospital,
Jerusalem, Israel -

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http://
www.icsi.ws/information/enewsletter/sep_03/kinderwunsch




Okay, Ned . . . . I am going to skip over all the documentation I have  that prions are present in the blood
of CJD infected people. . . . I will  pass on the numerous articles that no autopsies are performed on most
CJD victims because the families don't want to pay the $ thousands of dollars in costs  for  the post
mortems and the pathologists/medical examiners, etc. don't want to have to pay to replace thousands of
dollars in valuable medical  instruments because CJD infectivity cannot be mitigated by standard
autoclaving, etc.   
"Relatives suspect link between infected beef and kindred human disease
January 24, 2004 http://
www.pressdemocrat.com/local/news/24madcow_a1empirea.html

"The Sonoma County coroner has a policy against conducting such autopsies because of the possibility
that a medical examiner will become infected. Bernstein said he understands the coroner's concern,
noting surgeons have gotten the disease from working on infected brains."

And I would be very surprised if you were to suggest that present Class A and Class B pathogen
reduction methods have any effect whatsoever on prions.     If you have any doubts or questions, let me
know and I can laboriously and extensively  provide you with confirmatory research backing up what I say.

But how does the blood of CJD victims get into public sewers and into the Class A sludge biosolids being
sold at WalMart, et al ?




FUNERAL DIRECTORS IN WYOMING (and other states)  DISCHARGE CJD INFECTED FLUIDS
DIRECTLY INTO  TO PUBLIC SEWERS:
Funeral Directors of the State of Wyoming – which is part of EPA Region 8 – have posted instructions on
the Internet to dispose of prion infected blood from CJD victims into public sewers:
http://www.rense.com/general52/um.htm - EMBALMERS ADMIT CJD BLOOD  DISCHARGE TO PUBLIC
SEWERS


"Use drain hose to sewer system to minimize exposure to blood."
(http://
www.wyfda.org/member/cjg_2.html )  and
Disposal of liquid waste (drainage)- If injection with drainage is attempted, it presents the additional
problem of what to do with the drainage. Since formaldehyde has no effect on the prion, normal disposal
into the sewer system means introducing an unknown quantity of the prion into the sewer system.
As an alternative, some have proposed treating the drainage with a chemical known to have some
effectiveness against the prion, such as sodium hydroxide (lye) or sodium hypochlorite (bleach).
This presents further complications however.
Formaldehyde, which would also be in the drainage, should never be mixed with bleach.
Lye mixed with water produces heat and presents its own handling and disposal hazards.
Any attempts at treating the drainage, further exposes the embalmer to the prion as well as additional
chemical hazards.
Therefore, although it may not seem to be an adequate solution, the most logical answer is to dispose of
the drainage directly into the sewer system with a minimum of exposure to the embalmer. "     

http://
www.wyfda.org/member/cjg_3.html

medical facilities around the country routinely discharge prion infected blood into public sewers:

·   checking the Internet . . . there are innumerable references to the fact that prion contaminated blood,
urine and other body fluids are routinely discharged to public sewers. What is disturbing about infectious
prions is the fact that Class A sewage sludge "biosolids" pathogen reduction processes do not destroy or
inactivate prions . . . . (for example, Denver-Metro produces Class A sludge . .. )
[the difference between Class A sewage sludge and Class B sewage sludge is pathogens. Class B
sewage sludge can have up to 2 million colony forming units of fecal coliform per gram of total solids dry
weight, and still be land applied. Fecal coliform are an "indicator species" meaning if they are present,
other bacteria, viruses, protozoa, helminths, etc. are also present.

Pathogens in Class A sewage sludge biosolids compostare supposed to be"below detectable levels" and
must be under 1000 mpn (most probable number) fecal coliform per/gram dry weight -- and Salmonella
sp. 3 mpn per 4 grams, DW. -- however, as indicated above, Class A pathogen reduction processes are
totally ineffective against prions – AND PRIONS ARE TOTALLY IGNORED BY EPA AND WASTE
INDUSTRY AS A POTENTIALLY SURVIVING PATHOGEN IN CLASS A SEWAGE SLUDGE BIOSOLIDS.
·
http://
info.med.yale.edu/ynhh/infection/guidelines/CJD_IC_Policy_02.pdf
YALE NEW HAVEN HOSPITAL - INFECTION CONTROL POLICY - CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE -
PRECAUTIONS POLICY

"Blood and body fluids may be disposed of in a sanitary sewer system."
******************************************************************************************************************
·  ·  ·  http://
ehs.ucdavis.edu/chem/chem_mnl/clsm_ch9.cfm
·  CALIFORNIA
Medical Waste includes biohazardous waste and sharps waste.

Biohazardous Wastes are:
All liquid and solid waste generated while collecting, producing, processing, testing, immunizing, treating,
and/or storing specimens from humans or animals (vertebrate or invertebrate, wild or laboratory) that are
known or reasonably suspected of containing agents infectious to humans, and cultures of agents
infectious to humans (i.e., bacteria, fungi, rickettsia, helminths, insects, prions, protozoa and viruses)
classified as Biosafety Level II or greater with evidence of human pathogenicity ("Biosafety in
Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories," U.S. Public Health Service - Center for Disease Control
and the National Institutes of Health).
All human anatomical remains (except teeth) and any fluid human blood and blood products.
·  ·  ·  Medical waste must be properly treated prior to disposal. The primary means of treatment on
campus is through the UCDHS Medical Waste (MW) service, and approved MW autoclaves. However,
treated blood and urine can be discharged to the sewer system. Bagged medical waste that has been
treated according to MWMA requirements is considered non-medical solid waste and may be disposed at
the campus landfill through the routine campus refuse collection and disposal system. Medical waste
sharps containers must be collected by EH&S or an approved medical waste disposal company. Contact
EH&S for further information.


http://
www.dhs.state.or.us/publichealth/acd/docs/iweic.cfm OREGON
6. Medical Waste and CJD
Concerns have also been raised about the need for special handling and treatment procedures for
wastes generated during the care of patients with CJD or other transmissible spongiform
encephalopathies (TSEs). These concerns stem from the fact that the prion agents which cause TSEs
appear to have significant resistance to inactivation by a variety of physical, chemical, or gaseous
methods.1304 There is no epidemiologic evidence, however, linking acquisition of CJD with medical
waste disposal practices. Although it is prudent to handle neurologic tissue for pathologic examination
and autopsy materials with care, using barrier precautions and specific procedures for the autopsy,1113
there is no justification for using extraordinary measures once the materials are discarded. Regulated
medical wastes generated during the care of the CJD patient can be managed using the same strategies
as for wastes generated during the care of other patients. These wastes may be then disposed of in the
sanitary landfill after decontamination or discharged to the sanitary sewer as appropriate.

http://
www.epa.state.oh.us/dsiwm/document/guidance/gd_105.pdf
OHIO
BACKGROUND
"Blood and other body fluids are discharged to sanitary sewers from a variety of sources including
residences, hospitals, funeral homes and slaughter houses. These fluids are normally released into the
sewers without any prior treatment. This method of disposal has been used for many years with no
documented adverse health effects. The Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta continues to recommend
sanitary sewers as the most appropriate disposal method."


http://
missourianonline.com/features/2004/0311.php MISSOURI
Embalming involves replacing bodily fluids with preservatives like formaldehyde and other additives.
Schooler said dyes are sometimes included for a more life-like appearance in the deceased. Richard
Dowden, funeral director at the Price Funeral Home of Maryville, Mo., said the preservatives are pumped
in through the arterial system and the blood is removed through the venial system.
"I think some people have the wrong idea about the embalming process," Dowden said. "They think it's a
grotesque process, but it's a surgical process."
Dowden said the embalming takes 1-1 1/2 hours. The blood and other bodily fluids are flushed down the
normal sewer system. Schooler said if a body is embalmed properly it can be held for two to three weeks.


MASSACHUSETTS:
http://
www.science.smith.edu/resources/safety/chapter_VI(c).html
A. BACKGROUND
The Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) regulations 105 CMR 480.00 establish
requirements for the handling and disposal of medical and biological waste. Waste meeting the DPH
definitions are generated at three Smith College locations, Clark Science Center, Mason Infirmary, and
the Athletics Department. This Medical and Biological Waste Disposal Policy covers all three of those
locations.
B. MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WASTE DEFINITION
The following wastes are defined as infectious or physically dangerous medical or biological waste.
Blood and Blood Products: discarded human bulk blood and blood products in free draining, liquid state;
body fluids contaminated with visible blood; and materials saturated/dripping with blood (includes
antibodies developed in primates)
Pathological Waste: Human anatomical parts, organs, tissues and body fluids removed and discarded
during surgery or autopsy, or other medical procedures and specimens of body fluids and their
containers.
D. WASTE DISPOSAL PROCEDURES
Options for disposal of medical and biological waste generated at Smith College are shown in Figure 1.
Specific requirements for each option are described below.
Sewer Discharge: Free draining blood and blood products are disposed of down the sink and the drain
flushed with water.

http://
www.nursingceu.com/NCEU/courses/nyinfec/
NEW YORK
Regulated medical waste ("red bag" waste) demands special precautions in handling and disposal.
Regulated medical waste includes:
Microbiology laboratory waste
Pathology and anatomy waste
Bulk blood or blood products

These items require special handling, transport and storage procedures. CDC (2003) recommends the
following guidelines:

Personnel responsible for waste management need appropriate training in handling and disposal
methods in accordance with hospital policy.

Waste generated in isolation areas should be handled using the same methods used for waste from
other patient-care areas.

Disposable syringes with needles, including sterile sharps that are being discarded, scalpel blades, and
other sharp items should be disposed of in puncture resistant containers located as close as practical to
the point of use.

Do not bend, recap, or break used syringe needles before discarding them into a container.
Sanitary sewers may be used for safe disposal of blood, suctioned fluids, ground tissues, excretions, and
secretions, provided that local sewage discharge requirements are met and that the state has declared
this to be an acceptable method of disposal.
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http://
www.jewish-funerals.org/greeningfinal.htm - FLORIDA
Funeral home effluent, however, is not regulated, and waste is flushed into the common sewer system or
septic tank." In addition, the invasive nature of the embalming procedure may put the mortician at further
risk should s/he come in contact with a blood-borne pathogen.