Subject: Sludge Watch ==>  The Bill before Congress to Label Food  Grown on  Sludge
April 6, 2006
Representative Jose Serrano telephone: (202) 225-4361

Congressman has been introducing his Bill to label food grown on sludge since 1997
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Message: 1
Date: Thu, 06 Apr 2006 00:00:12 +0000
From: <maureen.reilly@sympatico.ca>
Subject: Sludge Watch ==>  The Bill before Congress to Label Food
Grown on    Sludge

To: Sludgewatch-l@list.web.net
Cc: jserrano@mail.house.gov
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Sludgewatch Admin

You may wish to call or email  Congressman Jose Serrano  and
tell him you like his Bill HR 261 - to label food grown on sludge.

Representative Jose Serrano telephone: (202) 225-4361


to see a good format of the bill see the pdf file attached or go to:
http://www.govtrack.us/data/us/bills.text/109/h207.pdf
...................................................................


http://www.organicconsumers.org/Organic/oca17.cfm

* U.S. Congressman Jose Serrano (D-NY) has introduced a bill
that would label food products grown on sewage sludge - H.R.
261. The bill would amend the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
and the egg, meat, and poultry inspection laws to ensure
that consumers are informed when food is produced from
crops, livestock, or poultry raised on land where sewage
sludge was applied. Sewage sludge used in agriculture is
composed of materials discharged from sewage treatment
plants consisting of residential, industrial, hospital
wastes, runoff from streets and farmlands, and in some cases
landfill leachates including Superfund sites. These wastes
contain varying degrees of pathogens, heavy metals, man-made
organic chemicals such as PCBs, dioxins, pharmaceuticals,
industrial solvents, detergents, asbestos, and radioactive
wastes.

...................................

109th U.S. Congress (2005-2006)
H.R. 207: Sewage Sludge in Food Production Consumer Notification Act
Introduced: Jan 4, 2005
Sponsor: Rep. Jose Serrano [D-NY]
Status: Introduced (By Rep. Jose Serrano [D-NY])

This text was automatically converted from PDF format. Formatting glitches
are a result of that process.


109TH CONGRESS
                       H. R. 207
1ST SESSION


To amend the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the egg, meat, and poultry
inspection laws to ensure that consumers receive notification regarding
food products produced from crops, livestock, or poultry raised on land
on which sewage sludge was applied.




    IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
                          JANUARY 4, 2005
Mr. SERRANO introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Com-
mittee on Energy and Commerce, and in addition to the Committee on
Agriculture, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker,
in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the
juris-
diction of the committee concerned




                        A BILL
To amend the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the                        
egg,
meat, and poultry inspection laws to ensure that                      
con-
sumers receive notification regarding food products                   
pro-
duced from crops, livestock, or poultry raised on                     
land
on which sewage sludge was applied.

1         Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa-
2 tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
3   SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

4         This Act may be cited as the ``Sewage Sludge in Food
5 Production Consumer Notification Act''.
                            2
1   SEC. 2. NOTIFICATION TO CONSUMERS OF FOOD PROD-

2                   UCTS PRODUCED ON LAND ON WHICH SEW-

3                   AGE SLUDGE HAS BEEN APPLIED.

4       (a) ADULTERATED FOOD UNDER FEDERAL FOOD,
5 DRUG,           COSMETIC ACT.--Section 402 of the Federal
        AND

6 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 342) is amend-
7 ed by adding at the end the following:
8       ``(i)(1) Effective one year after the date of the enact-
9 ment of the Sewage Sludge in Food Production Consumer
10 Notification Act, if it is a food (intended for human con-
11 sumption and offered for sale) that was produced, or con-
12 tains any ingredient that was produced, on land on which
13 sewage sludge was applied, unless--
14            ``(A) the application of sewage sludge to the
15       land terminated more than one year before the date
16       on which the production of the food or ingredient on
17       the land commenced;
18            ``(B) the food bears a label that clearly indi-
19       cates that the food, or an ingredient of the food, was
20       produced on land on which sewage sludge was ap-
21       plied; or
22            ``(C) in the case of a raw agricultural com-
23       modity or other food generally offered for sale with-
24       out labeling, a sign is posted within close proximity
25       of the food to notify consumers that the food, or an


  HR 207 IH
                            3
1      ingredient of the food, was produced on land on
2      which sewage sludge was applied.''.
3      (b) ADULTERATED FOOD UNDER EGG PRODUCTS
4 INSPECTION ACT.--Section 4(a) of the Egg Products In-
5 spection Act (21 U.S.C. 1033(a)) is amended--
6             (1) by striking ``or'' at the end of paragraph
7       (7);
8             (2) by striking the period at the end of para-
9       graph (8) and inserting ``; or''; and
10             (3) by adding at the end the following:
11             ``(9) effective one year after the date of the en-
12      actment of the Sewage Sludge in Food Production
13      Consumer Notification Act, if it is derived from
14      poultry that were raised, or that consumed animal
15      feed produced, on land on which sewage sludge was
16      applied, unless--
17                 ``(A) the application of sewage sludge to
18             the land terminated more than one year before
19             the date on which the poultry began to be
20             raised on the land or the date on which the pro-
21             duction of the animal feed on the land com-
22             menced; or
23                 ``(B) the container bears a label that clear-
24             ly indicates that the egg or egg product was de-
25             rived from poultry that--


 HR 207 IH
                            4
1                        ``(i) were raised on land on which sew-
2                  age sludge was applied; or
3                        ``(ii) consumed animal feed produced
4                  on land on which sewage sludge was ap-
5                  plied.''.
6       (c) ADULTERATED FOOD UNDER FEDERAL MEAT
7 INSPECTION ACT.--Section 1(m) of the Federal Meat In-
8 spection Act (21 U.S.C. 601(m)) is amended--
9             (1) by striking ``or'' at the end of paragraph
10      (8);
11             (2) by striking the period at the end of para-
12      graph (9) and inserting ``; or''; and
13             (3) by adding at the end the following:
14             ``(10) effective one year after the date of the
15      enactment of the Sewage Sludge in Food Production
16      Consumer Notification Act, if it is derived from live-
17      stock that grazed, or consumed animal feed pro-
18      duced, on land on which sewage sludge was applied,
19      unless--
20                 ``(A) the application of sewage sludge to
21             the land terminated more than one year before
22             the date on which the livestock began grazing
23             on the land or the date on which the production
24             of the animal feed on the land commenced;




 HR 207 IH
                             5
1                  ``(B) the carcass, part thereof, meat or
2              meat food product bears a label that clearly in-
3              dicates that the livestock--
4                        ``(i) grazed on land on which sewage
5                  sludge was applied; or
6                        ``(ii) consumed animal feed produced
7                  on land on which sewage sludge was ap-
8                  plied; or
9                  ``(C) in the case of a carcass, part thereof,
10              meat or meat food product generally offered for
11              sale without labeling, a sign is posted within
12              close proximity of the item to notify consumers
13              that the livestock--
14                        ``(i) grazed on land on which sewage
15                  sludge was applied; or
16                        ``(ii) consumed animal feed produced
17                  on land on which sewage sludge was ap-
18                  plied.''.
19       (d) ADULTERATED FOOD UNDER POULTRY PROD-
20          INSPECTION ACT.--Section 4(g) of the Poultry
 UCTS

21 Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 453(g)) is amended--
22              (1) by striking ``or'' at the end of paragraph
23       (7);
24              (2) by striking the period at the end of para-
25       graph (8) and inserting ``; or''; and


  HR 207 IH
                          6
1            (3) by adding at the end the following new
2       paragraph:
3            ``(9) effective one year after the date of the en-
4       actment of the Sewage Sludge in Food Production
5       Consumer Notification Act, if it is derived from
6       poultry that were raised, or that consumed animal
7       feed produced, on land on which sewage sludge was
8       applied, unless--
9                 ``(A) the application of sewage sludge to
10           the land terminated more than one year before
11           the date on which the poultry began to be
12           raised on the land or the date on which the pro-
13           duction of the animal feed on the land com-
14           menced;
15                ``(B) the poultry product bears a label that
16           clearly indicates that the poultry contained in
17           the product--
18                     ``(i) were raised on land on which sew-
19                age sludge was applied; or
20                     ``(ii) consumed animal feed produced
21                on land on which sewage sludge was ap-
22                plied; or
23                ``(C) in the case of a poultry product gen-
24           erally offered for sale without labeling, a sign is
25           posted within close proximity of the item to no-


 HR 207 IH
                             7
1            tify consumers that the poultry contained in the
2            product--
3                       ``(i) were raised on land on which sew-
4                 age sludge was applied; or
5                       ``(ii) consumed animal feed produced
6                 on land on which sewage sludge was ap-
7                 plied.''.
8       (e) RELATION          NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM.--
                      TO

9 Nothing in this section or the amendments made by this
10 section shall be construed to modify the prohibition con-
11 tained in part 205 of title 7, Code of Federal Regulations,
12 on the use of sewage sludge, including ash, grit, or
13 screenings from the production of sewage sludge, in or-
14 ganic food production under the National Organic Pro-
15 gram of the Department of Agriculture.

End of Sludgewatch-l Digest, Vol 18, Issue 7
********************************************


Serrano does not give up.
on January 7, 1997, Congressman Serrano of New York introduced a new food labeling Bill (H.R. 289, 1997) to identify
food products grown on land "fertilized" with contaminated sludge containing toxic pollutants.
http://www.penweb.org/issues/sludge/109.htm

National Sludge Alliance Fact Sheet #109
March 30, 1997

Food Safety Claims

The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 should have been the Congressional capstone on 40 years of legislative action
to close the last remaining loophole in the environmental laws to protect public health from exposure to hazardous and
toxic substances and clean up the environment. However, where sewage sludge is concerned, Congress has not been
able to control the EPA and make the Congressional mandated laws work. In fact, on January 7, 1997, Congressman
Serrano of New York introduced a new food labeling Bill (H.R. 289, 1997) to identify food products grown on land
"fertilized" with contaminated sludge containing toxic pollutants.

Congressman Serrano's Bill was; "To amend the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the egg, meat, and poultry
inspection laws to ensure that consumers receive notification regarding food products produced from crops, livestock, or
poultry raised on land which sewage sludge was applied."

Some state legislators also introduced state bills to severely restrict the use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer on food
products. Senators Kuhl and Seward of New York introduced state Bill 2853) (February 25, 1997) to make agricultural
land on which sewage sludge is used ineligible for an agricultural assessment. Senator McCormack of Vermont
introduced state Bill S179 (March 1997) to restrict pollutants to 1/10 the levels allowed by EPA in 40 CFR 503 sewage
sludge use and disposal regulation.

State legislators have good reason for this action, according to Congress, "(13) The term "toxic pollutant" means those
pollutants, or combinations of pollutants, including disease causing agents, which after discharge and upon exposure,
ingestion, inhalation or assimilation into any organism [living entity], either directly from the environment or indirectly by
ingestion through food chains, will, on the basis of information available to the Administrator, cause death, disease,
behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations, physiological malfunctions (including malfunctions in reproductions)
of physical deformations, in organisms [people or animals] or their offspring." (Title 33, part 1362)

However, according to EPA, "The term "toxic pollutant" is not used in the final part 503 regulation because this generally
is limited to the list of priority toxic pollutants developed by EPA. The Agency concluded that Congress intended that
EPA develop the part 503 pollutant limits for a broader range of substances that might interfere with the use and
disposal of sewage sludge, not just the 126 priority pollutants." (FR. 58, 32, p. 9327)

As noted above, Congress felt the environmental laws were needed to protect the public's health from exposure to toxic
pollutants through the food chains by acknowledging that the pollutants WILL cause death, etc., and the EPA agrees in
part 503.9(t) that exposure to the pollutants in sludge through the food-chain could cause death, etc. So, why is EPA
using perceived loopholes in the laws to justify the use of toxic contaminated sludge as fertilizer and only addressing 9
toxic pollutants in the regulation? (Public Facts #101)

The reaction to the advent of the Food Quality Protection Act which was by Congress in 1996 has been dramatic: 1)
Almost a quarter of the States rushed to enact food slander laws to prevent vocal complaints against adulterated food
products; 2) EPA prevailed on the National Academy of Science's National Research Council (NRC) to release an
unedited (and very flawed) scientific study on the positive benefits of using sludge as a fertilizer on food crops; and 3)
EPA quickly changed the Sludge Use and Disposal Regulation (40 CFR 503) by removing the ref erence to regulating
the extremely high toxic Chromium limits from the beneficial sludge use tables in part 503.13.

The basic premise of the "food slander laws" is that the media will not carry any "horror" stories about contaminated
food products that have not been proven scientifically. However, even the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) own
recommendations would violate the food slander laws: "(e.) Because sewage can be regarded as filth, food physically
contaminated with sludge can be considered adulterated even though there is no direct health hazard. Sludge should
not be applied directly to growing or mature crops where sludge particles may remain in or on the food. (f.) Commercial
compost and bagged fertilizer products derived from sludges should be labeled properly to minimize contamination of
crops in the human food chain which may result from their use. (c.) Crops which are customarily eaten raw should not be
planted within three years after the last sludge application. (d.) Crops such as green beans, beets, etc. which may
contaminate other foods in the kitchen before cooking should not be grown in sludge-treated land unless the sludge
gives a negative test for pathogens." (Table 14. FDA Recommendations to EPA on the Land Application of Sludge (66,
75, 76), EPA-600-1-80- 025, May 1980)

When the FDA made the recommendations in Table 14, in 1980, little was known about the toxicity of the pollutants in
sludge or the infinite number of pathogens (disease causing agents) in sludge. Nor was the methodology available to
measure pathogen destruction, toxic elements or assess the risks to human health from the toxic pollutants in sludge.
However, FDA did recommend: "(Table 14, a.) Sludges should not contain more than 20 ppm Cadmium, 1000 ppm lead
or 10 ppm PCBs on the dry weight."

EPA disagreed with the FDA on lead, "The Agency, therefore, decided to select the more conservative numerical limit
for the final part 503 to minimize lead exposure to children and set the allowable exposure limit at 300 ppm for this
pathway (direct ingestion)---In addition, a 300 ppm lead concentration in sludge is consistent with current sewage sludge
quality at all but a very small number of POTWs."

What happened? Ninety-six pages later, EPA raised the lead level 540 ppm above the highly protective level of 300 ppm
to 840 ppm and PCB's were raised to 50 ppm. (FR. 58, pp. 9286 & 9382 / Table 1 of Part 503.13 -503.6).
Not only that, but the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health(NIOSH) has data on many thousands of
pollutants. As an example, the ten heavy metals addressed in sludge (Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead,
Mercury, Molybdenum, Nickel, Selenium and Zinc) "regulated" by Part 503 are all identified by NIOSH as poisonous by
inhalation or ingestion or by other routes. NIOSH identified nine of the heavy metals as cancer causing agents. NIOSH
also has data which show seven of the heavy metals cause mutagenic effects in living organisms. (Public Facts #108)
Since 1981, EPA has claimed sewage sludge was safe for use on food crops. Yet, at that time the methodology was not
available to test for dioxins. The EPA still does not have a human health risk assessment model in place. The Peer
Review workshop is only now (March 1997) being held. (Jan, 1997-FR. 62, p. 8241, 42)

Not only that, but EPA has just requested "Investigator- Initiated Grants on Health Effects of Arsenic." According to EPA,
"In conducting these studies it is also essential to address availability of arsenic absorption from ingested foods, as well
as arsenic speciation (chemical form and oxidation state). (Dec, 1996-FR. 61, p. 64739, 40)

The EPA still has not released its Congressional mandated report on mercury which was due in 1994. Based on media
reports, the report may not be released for another four years. (Bender, M.,(April 1997) Waste Dynamics- Northeast,
Vol. 8, No. 2 )
If the EPA is only now studying the health effects of Arsenic in food, working on the human health risk assessment model
for dioxin, and refuses to release the mercury study, why would the National Research Council produce an EPA funded
scientific study which concluded that sludge/biosolids was safe for use on food crops, except for the access restrictions
for pathogens ? (Use of Reclaimed Water and Sludge in Food Crop Production, 1996)

EPA only requires the reduction of pathogens based on the number of fecal coliform, "less than 1000 Most Probable
Number per gram of total solids" for unrestricted Class A sludge or "less than 2,000,000 Most Probable Number per
gram of total solids" for Class B sludge. (FR. 58, p. 9399 - Part 503.32)

EPA claims that to prevent pathogen regrowth in Class A sludge, "the sewage sludge shall be injected below the land
surface within eight hours after being discharged from the treatment process." or "Sewage sludge applied to the land
surface or placed on surface disposal site shall be incorporated into the soil within six hours after application to or
placement on the land." (FR. 58, p. 9401 - 503.33(9)(iii)(10)(i))

Actually, the NRC report did not conclude sludge/biosolids was safe to use in food crop production! The NRC scientific
study was a public relations document designed to be used in food slander law suits against people who have been
harmed by sludge/biosolids use. (Report to National Sludge Roundtable, July 20, 1996. Toxic Sludge is Safe for Your
Food says National Academy of Science. Laredo Safety Institute, Laredo, Tx.)

According to the NRC study, "The suite of existing federal regulations, available avenues for additional state and local
regulatory actions, and private sector forces appear adequate to allow, with time and education, the development of
safe beneficial reuse of reclaimed wastewater and sludge." (P.172)

The study also notes, "Related regulations pertain to toxic waste handling and treatment, surface and groundwater
protection, and public health. These regulations and their overlapping authority are complex and need to be adequately
explained to both the regulatory community and the interested public to avoid confusion and the perception that
beneficial use is a disguise for the dumping of waste." (p.172)

The study is qualified, "If it were not for this regulatory framework and investment by industry, beneficial use sludge
would not be a viable option." (p. 165)

However, it appears that the NRC Committee failed to check its source of information, the EPA. Nor did the Committee
read the regulation (which showed at the time) that beneficial sludge/biosolids fertilizer was too contaminated with
arsenic and chromium to be disposed of in a part 503 regulated landfill. (part 503.13 and 503.23, 1995)

Not only that, the committee offers 40 CFR parts 135, ("If public drinking water does not meet mandatory requirement,
suppliers must provide notice to customers."), and 256 (state solid waste management plans) as protective regulations.
(pp. 165,6) Part 135 actually is for the Prior Notification of Citizens suits against the polluters and part 256 existed in
name only, it was never funded.

The most alarming part of the NRC scientific study was the reference to the one limited epidemic study on human
exposure to sludge which was attributed to: Brown, R.E, and titled, Demonstration of acceptable systems for land
disposal of sewage sludge. Water Engineering Research Lab. EPA 600/Z- 85- 062. Cincinnati, Ohio: U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency.

The Brown paper was a third party two page abstract of the actual study which noted the World Health Organization
(WHO, 1981) reported a positive association and a cycle of infections of Salmonella from humans to sludge to animals
to humans where cattle grazed on sludge treated pastures. (Municipal Sewage Sludge Application on Ohio Farms:
Health Effects. Dorn, R.C., et al, Environmental Research 38, 332- 335). - LSI -